Moksha numerals

Moksha numerals are an ancient numeric system Moksha people used. In accordance with archeological data these numerals were in use since Stone age These numerals resemble Roman numerals. They were easily carved on wood, drawn on clay or birch bark. In some places they were preserved till the beginning of 20th century mostly among small traders, bee-keepers and village elders. These numerals still can be found on old shepherd and taxgatherer staffs, apiaries and pottery.


  • Martyanov V.N., Nadkin D.T. K voprosu o finno-ugorskoy sisteme schisleniya//Materialy po arkheologii i etnographii Mordovii. - Saransk, 1975
  • Drevnosti mordovskogo naroda. - Saransk, 1941, P.33
  • Kniga pisma i mery pistsov Dmitriya Yuryevicha Pushechnikova da podyachego Afanasiya Kostyayeva mordovskikh i burtasskikh zemel 132-go, 133-go i 134-go godov (GAFKE, Moscow Oruzheynaya palata fund, opis №33, d. № 3535


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