Definitions

taprooted

Annona

[uh-noh-nuh]

For other meanings, see Annona (disambiguation).
Annona is the second largest genus, after Guatteria, in the plant family Annonaceae, containing approximately 110 species of mostly Neotropical and Afrotropical trees and shrubs. The name derives from the Taíno annon. Paleoethnobotanical studies have dated Annona exploitation and cultivation in the Yautepec River region of Mexico to approximately 1000 BC.

Currently, seven Annona species and one hybrid are grown for domestic or commercial use mostly for the edible and nutritious fruits. Many of the species are used in traditional medicines for the treatment of a variety of diseases. Several annonacaeous species have been found to contain acetogenins, a class of natural compounds with a wide variety of biological activities.

Description

Taprooted evergreen or semi-deciduous tropical trees or shrubs.Trunks: Thin bark that has broad and shallow depression or fissures which join together and are scaly. Slender, stiff, cylindrical and tapering shoots with raised pores and naked buds.Leaves: Leaf blades can be leathery or thin and rather soft or pliable, bald or hairy.Flowers: The flowering stalks rise from an axil, or occasionally from axillary buds on main stem or older stems, or as solitary flowers or small bundle of flowers. Usually three or four deciduous sepals that are smaller than the outer petals that do not overlap while in bud. Six to eight fleshy petals in two whorls -- the petals of the outer whorl are larger and do not overlap; inner petals are ascending, distinctively smaller and nectar glands are darker pigmented. Numerous stamens that are ball, club-shaped, or curved and hooded or pointed beyond anther sac. Numerous pistils, attached directly to the base, partially united to various degrees with distinct stigmas. One or two ovules per pistil; style and stigma club-shaped or narrowly conic.Fruits: One fleshy, ovate to spherical fruit per flower. Each fruit consisting of many individual small fruits or syncarps; one syncarp and seed per pistil. Seeds beanlike with tough coats.Pollination: Dynastid scarab beetles appears basic within the genus Annona. Those species of Annona which are more morphologically derived, as well as all Rollinia spp. possess reduced floral chambers and attract small beetles like Nitidulidae or Staphylinidae.

Images

Selected species

The following is a list of some of the more important species. Many of them have significant agricultural, medicinal, pharmaceutical, and other uses. Synonyms appear in the sub-list.

Insects and diseases

Annona are generally disease free. They are susceptible to some fungus and wilt. Ants are a problem since they promote mealy bugs on the fruit.Insects

----Fungi

----Nematodes

----Algae

----Diseases

  • Diplodia natalensis (Dry fruit rot)
  • Fruit rot

References

External links

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