In warfare, the art and science of fighting battles. It is concerned with the approach to combat, placement of troops, use made of weapons, vehicles, ships, or aircraft, and execution of movements for attack or defense. In general, tactics deal with the problems encountered in actual fighting. Tactical thinking attempts to coordinate personnel with the existing weapons technology and apply both to the terrain and enemy forces in a way that uses the fighting force to best advantage. Deployment involves placing each type of weapon where it can do the most damage to the enemy or provide the most protection to one's own forces. Timing and direction of attack are also important considerations. At sea, direction was especially crucial in the era of wind-powered warships. In recent wars, timing has been a crucial factor in mounting airborne strikes that take advantage of the element of surprise. Seealso strategy.
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