Definitions

Tabriz

Tabriz

[tah-breez, tuh-]
Tabriz, city (1991 pop. 1,088,985), capital of East Azerbaijan prov., NW Iran, on the Aji Chai (Talkheh) River, in the foothills of Mt. Sahand, at an elevation of c.4,600 ft (1,400 m). The fourth largest city in Iran, it is a summer resort and a commercial, industrial, and transportation center. Its manufactures include carpets, textiles, food products, shoes, and cement. There is also an extensive bazaar.

Historically, much of the city's importance has resulted from its strategic position for trade to the north (now the nations of Commonwealth of Independent States) and to the west (now Turkey). Tabriz, then known as Tauris, was (3d cent. A.D.) the capital of Armenia under King Tiridates III. It was sacked by the Oghuz Turks c.1029, but by 1054, when it was captured by the Seljuk Turks, Tabriz had recovered and was a provincial capital.

In 1295, Ghazan Khan, the Mongol ruler of Persia, made it the chief administrative center of an empire stretching from Egypt to the Oxus River and from the Caucasus to the Indian Ocean. Under his rule new walls were built around the city, and numerous public buildings, educational facilities, and caravansaries were erected. Tabriz was captured by Timur in the late 14th cent., and Shah Ismail made it the capital of his empire from 1501 until his defeat (1514) by the Ottoman Turks.

The Ottomans occupied Tabriz on a number of occasions thereafter, including the period from 1585 to 1603. Nevertheless, by the 17th cent. it was a major commercial center, carrying on trade with Turkey, Russia, central Asia, and India. Later, the city was again occupied (1724-30) by the Ottomans, and it was held by Russia in 1827-28. Tabriz played an important part in the Persian constitutional movement at the beginning of the 20th cent. After World War II it was the scene of a revolution led by the leftist Tudeh party, and a Tudeh regime, which had the support of the Soviet Union, held power for a few months in 1946.

The city has often been devastated by earthquakes (e.g., in 858, 1041, and 1721) and has few historical remains; of these, the most important are the beautiful Blue Mosque (15th cent.) and the Ark, or Ali Shah, Mosque (14th cent.), whose walls are 85 ft (25.9 m) high. Tabriz is the site of a university (founded 1946) and contains the Azerbaijan Museum.

City (pop., 2006: 1,398,060), northwestern Iran. Earthquakes have damaged the city numerous times, and it has weathered invasions by Arabs, Turks, and Mongols. The Turkic ruler Timur conquered it in 1392. During the next 200 years control passed several times between Ssubdotafavid Iran and the Ottoman Empire. During the 19th and 20th centuries it passed between the Ottomans and the Russian Empire, and the same powers fought over it in World War I (1914–18). In the 1850s a schismatic Shīaynite religious leader known as the Bāb (“Gateway”) and 40,000 of his followers were executed there. It was damaged during the Iran-Iraq War (1980–90). Notable ancient sites include the 15th-century Blue Mosque, renowned for the splendour of its blue tile decoration, and the remains of the 12-sided tomb of Mongol leader Mahsubdotmūd Ghāzān.

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Tabriz (تبریز, تبریز) is the largest city in northwestern Iran. It is situated north of the volcanic cone of Sahand, south of the Eynali mountain. It is the capital of East Azarbaijan Province. Tabriz lies at the junction of the Komur River (Mehran River) and the Aji River.

With a population of 1,600,000, Tabriz is Iran's Fourth largest city, after Tehran, Mashhad and Esfahan.

History

Etymology

The founding of Tabriz is shrouded in mystery and myth. Various sources name the city as the possible site of the Biblical Garden of Eden.

According to some sources, including Encyclopedia Britannica, the name Tabriz derives from "tap-riz" ("causing heat to flow" in Iranian languages), from the many thermal springs in the area. Other sources claim that in A.D. 246, to avenge his brother's death, king Khosraw I of Armenia defeated Ardashir I of the Sassanid Empire and changed the name of the city from Shahistan to Tauris, deriving from "ta-vrezh" ("this revenge" in Grabar). In A.D. 297, it became the capital of Tiridates III, king of Armenia.

Medieval and renaissance history

In A.D. 791, Zubaidah, the wife of Abbasid caliph Harun al-Rashid, rebuilt Tabriz after a devastating earthquake and beautified the city so much as to obtain the credit for having been its founder.

After the Mongol invasion, Tabriz came to eclipse Maragheh as the later Ilkhanid capital of Azarbaijan until sacked by Tamerlane in 1392. Chosen as a capital by Arghun Khan, fourth ruler of the Ilkhanate, for its favored location in the northwestern grasslands, in 1295, his successor Ghazan Khan made it the chief administrative center of an empire stretching from Egypt to the Oxus River and from the Caucasus to the Indian Ocean. Under his rule new walls were built around the city, and numerous public buildings, educational facilities, and caravansaries were erected. The Byzantine Gregory Choniades is said to have served as the city's Orthodox bishop during this time.

From 1375 to 1468, Tabriz was the capital of Kara Koyunlu state in Azarbaijan, and from 1469 to 1501 the capital of Ak Koyunlu state.

In 1501, Shah Ismail I entered Tabriz and proclaimed it the capital of his Safavid dynasty. In 1514, after the Battle of Chaldiran, Tabriz fell for a few months to the Ottomans, yet was returned and remained a capital of Safavid Iranian empire until 1548, when Shah Tahmasp I moved Safavid capital to Qazvin.

The Ottomans occupied Tabriz on a number of occasions during and after the Safavid reign, including the period from 1585 to 1603. Nevertheless, by the 17th century it was a major commercial center, carrying out trade with the Ottoman Empire, Russia, central Asia, and India. Later, the city was again occupied (1724) by the Ottomans, and it was held by Russia in 1828.

Contemporary history

Tabriz was the city where the Constitutional Revolution of Iran started in 1906 and where its leaders, Sattar Khan and Bagher Khan came from. An American who died defending the Constitutional Revolution, Howard Baskerville, is buried in Tabriz.

Because of the location of Tabriz (as a gate to the west for Iran), many signs of modern life in Iran have first appeared in this city. Because of this, Iranians have described Tabriz as a "City of firsts". These include:

  • The first printing house of Iran was founded in Tabriz (1811).
  • The first modern school of Iran was founded in Tabriz by Hassan Roshdieh (1888). The language of instruction was Persian and Azari Turkish.
  • The first Iranian special school for deaf children was founded in Tabriz by Jabbar Baghcheban (1924).
  • The first Iranian special school for blind students was founded in Tabriz by a German mission (1926).
  • The first Iranian kindergarten was founded in Tabriz by Jabbar Baghcheban (1923).
  • The first modern-style municipality and city hall in Iran were founded in Tabriz.
  • Tabriz Chamber of Commerce was the first of its kind founded in Iran (1906).
  • The first public libraries in modern Iran were founded in Tabriz.
  • The first movie theater in Iran was founded in Tabriz (1900). Also the first movie theater in Tehran was founded by a Tabrizi (1921).
  • Tabriz was the first city in Iran that got a Telephone system (about 1900).

The famous Iranian historian, Ahmad Kasravi, was born in a nearby village called Hokmavar. Samad Behrangi, a famous writer and musicians, as well as Ali Salimi, Vahid Houseini, and Bigjeh-Khani were Tar (lute) specialists from this city.

After World War II, the Soviets set up the communist Azerbaijan People's Government in North Western Iran with its capital at Tabriz. The new communist government, under the leadership of Jafar Pishevari, held power for a year from 1946, then Tabriz was taken back by Iran (on 1947) after the forced Soviet withdrawal.

Historical timeline

  • 4 BCE: It is the capital of Media Atropatene ,named after Atropates, an Iranian governor of the province (appointed by Alexander the Great).
  • 297: It becomes the capital of Tiridates III, the king of Armenia.
  • 791: Tabriz is rebuilt by Zubaidah, wife of Harun al-Rashid, after being destroyed by an earthquake.
  • 858: An earthquake destroys large parts of Tabriz.
  • 1041: An earthquake destroys large parts of Tabriz.
  • late 1200s: The Mongol Il-Khan Arghun makes Tabriz his capital.
  • 1501: Ismail Safavi crowned as Shah in Tabriz, founding the Safavid dynasty
  • 1548: Tabriz is replaced by Qazvin as the capital of the Safavid kingdom. Tabriz was considered too exposed to a potential Ottoman invasion.
  • 1721: An earthquake destroys large parts of Tabriz.
  • 1780: Another earthquake destroys large parts of Tabriz.
  • 1826: Tabriz is occupied by the Russians.
  • 1828: Qajar army enters back in Tabriz.
  • 1850: Báb, the founder of the Bábí Faith and Forerunner of Bahá'u'lláh is executed in Tabriz.
  • 1906 - 1908: Tabriz becomes the centre of the Iranian Constitutional Revolution.
  • 1927: An earthquake destroyed large parts of Tabriz.
  • 1941: Tabriz occupied by the Soviet troops.
  • 1945: December: Becomes the capital of a short-lived Soviet-backed autonomous Azerbaijan People's Government.
  • 1946: Tabriz University is opened.
  • 1947: Iranian troops take back Tabriz.

Excavation sites

In 2002, during a construction project behind the Blue Mosque (Part of Silk Road Project), historical graves buried in a special way have been found. The construction company had hidden the finding for several months. Finally, the site was revealed by one of the workers who was involved at the construction site. Analysis has shown that the background of the graves to be more than 2000 years old.

There is another excavation site in Abbasi alley where the Robe Rashidi was.

Governing system

City authority lies with the mayor, who is elected by a municipal board. The municipal board is periodically elected by the city residents.

Tabriz City Hall (Saat Tower building) is used as the Municipal central office.

Climate

Tabriz has a dry continental climate (Köppen BSk). The annual precipitation is around , a good deal of which falls as snow during the winter months. In the summer, the weather is typically hot, dry and clear.

Culture

Language

The predominant language in the city is Azerbaijani. Almost all inhabitants of the city also can speak and understand Persian as well.

Literature

The music and folksongs of Tabriz are popular and traditions have a long history among its people. Prominent Iranian Azeri poet Mohammad Hossein Shahriar was born in Tabriz. The handicrafts in the Bazaar of Tabriz, and in particular the Tabriz rug is famous worldwide. The culture, social values, language and the music is a mixture of what exists in rest of Iran as well as the.

Tabriz also has a special place in Persian literature, as the following sample of verses from some of Iran's best poets and authors illustrates:

ساربانا بار بگشا ز اشتران
شهر تبريز است و کوی دلبران

Oh Sārbān, have camels' cargo unloaded,
For Tabriz is neighborhood of the beloved.
Molana

عزیزی در اقصای تبریز بود
که همواره بیدار و شبخیز بود

A beloved lived in Tabriz away from sight,
who was always alert and awake at night
Bustan of Sadi

تا به تبریزم دو چیزم حاصل است
نیم نان و آب مهران رود و بس

As long as I live in Tabriz, two things I need not worry of,
The half loaf of bread and the water of Mehran River are enough!
Khaqani

Art of Rug

Tabriz is the number one center for production of the famous Iranian Rugs.

Nowaday Tabrizian carpets are the most wanted in world markets, having many customers in western countries from Europe to California.

Tabrizian rugs and carpets usually have ivory backgrounds with blue, rose, and indigo motifs. Rugs and carpets often have very symmetrical and balanced designs. They usually have a single medallion that is surrounded with vines and palmettos and are of excellent quality.

Tabrizian modern rugs are in many different designs and colors.

Music

The classical music of Azerbaijan is called mugam ("muğam"), and is usually melded with poetry and instrumental interludes. The sung poetry sometimes includes tahrir segments, which use a form of throat singing similar to yodeling. The poetry is typically about divine love and is often linked to Sufi Islam.

In contrast to the mugam traditions of Central Asian countries, Azeri mugam is more free-form and less rigid; it is often compared to the improvised field of jazz.[2]

UNESCO proclaimed the Azerbaijani mugam tradition a "Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity" on November 7, 2003.

Ashiqs are travelling bards who sing and play the saz, a form of lute. Their songs are semi-improvised around a common base.

Food and Confectionary

kufta Tabrizi (Azeri:Tabriz kufta si) is a special food prepared in Tabriz. Some restaurants offer kufta Tabrizi on their menu but the quality is not as good as when it is prepared by Tabriz families at home.

Another traditional food is "Garniyarikh' ("the torn abdomen" in Azeri).That is some kind of Dolma that is filled with meat, garlic, almonds that is so delicious.

Tabriz is also famous for its delicious cookies, some of which are Tabriz specialities, including Ghorabiye, Eris, Nogha and many others. They can be bought at markets: the most famous markets for this purpose are Rex (in Imam Ave near to Ferdowsi Ave.), Tashrifat (Abrassan Sq.), Karimi (Valieasr Quarter) and Eftekhari (Mansour Street)," Ayubi"(Abrassan Sq.) ,"Tesaj"(serah Sq.)

Tourism

Monuments

Several times in its history (e.g., in 858, 1041, and 1721), Tabriz was devastated by earthquakes which wiped out most of the historic monuments. One important monument that has survived these earthquakes is the Tabriz Citadel (Ark-e Tabriz or Ark-e Alishah), a ruin of vertical book-shaped elements. The Blue Mosque of Tabriz (مسجد کبود Gouy-Masjed) is another important monument in the city. Here is a list of city's monuments:

Museums

There are eight major museums in Tabriz:

Major hotels

  • 'Hotel Pars (Hotel El Gholi) (International, 5 star) in Shah Goli
  • Shahryar International Hotel (5 star) in Shah Gholi Street
  • Hotel Gostaresh (4 star) in Abresan Sq.
  • Tabriz International Hotel(4 star ) in Abresan Sq.
  • Hotel Azarbaijan in Shahnaz Street
  • Hotel Ark in Shahnaz Street
  • Hotel Darya (3 star) in Khomeyni Street
  • Hotel Park in Khomeyni Street
  • Hotel Negin
  • Hotel Sina, in front of Golestan Park (Gunga Bashi)
  • Hotel Marmar, in Darvazeh Tehran road
  • Kandovan Tourism Cliff (Rocky) Hotel (5 star), located at Kandovan touristy village. It is the first of its kind in Iran and the second in the world after Turkey's rocky hotel.
  • and many hostels (with low cost) in Ferdowsi Street

Transportation

Since ancient times Tabriz has been known as a transportation center between West and East. It lies on the ancient Silk Road.

International

Currently Tabriz is linked to the world by Sento International Road, Iran Railways and Tabriz International Airport.

Inner City

Tabriz has taxi and public bus network. There are also some private groups which provide taxi services.

Metro Network (Subway Urban Train Network)

Tabriz does not have a completed subway train network at the moment. The government of Iran had planned to finish 6km of line No.1 of subway urban train network of Tabriz in 2006 but they could not reach to this goal because of financial problems.

Education & Research

Universities & Research Centres

Tabriz University is one of Iran's most prestigious schools of higher education. A list of the universities and research centers in the city follows:

Famous Schools

  • Roshdieh School is the first modern Iranian school which was established by Haj-Mirza Hassan Roshdieh. Currently its building is used as the Tabriz branch of the National Iranian Documents and Library Office.
  • Memorial School (American School of Tabriz) was opened on 1891 and is one of the most famous schools of its type. After World War II the school's name was changed to Parvin High School under Iran education ministry's management. Currently it is divided into three separate high schools and the original building is under reconstruction.
  • Vahdat Technical College is another famous school in Tabriz. It was developed by the Germans during World War II. The main building has the shape of an A (the first letter of Germany in German Language).
  • Ferdowsi High School is one of the largest and most prominent academic high schools in Tabriz. The original building was constructed by German Engineers before World War II (to serve as Hospital). The building has an aerial view as H.
  • Teezhoushan School(Shahid Madani)(Farzanegan) (SAMPAD/NODET) middle and high schools established in 1989 for high I.Q talented students.

Religious Schools

  • Valiiasr religious school
  • Talebiieh Islamic Sciences School

Libraries

Sport

Tabrizi people are fans of soccer. The city is the site of four Iranian major soccer teams:

Tabriz also has two stadiums for soccer:

Famous Tabrizian

Sufi:

Politicians and reformists:

Poet, Writer:

Scientist:

Clergy:

Artist:

Other

For a complete list see: List of people from Tabriz

Major Industries

Heavy Industries

Tabriz is one of Iran's most important industrial cities. Its products include cement, machine tools, vehicles, petrochemical and many other industrial products. Some of the major industrial complexes in the city are listed below:

Major Chocolate Factories

Tabriz food industries, specially in chocolate manufacturing, are famous. That could be the reason to honor the city as Chocolate City of Iran also. Some of the most famous chocolate industries of inside the city are:

Photo Gallery of Tabriz


For a more extensive photo gallery of Tabriz see Tabriz City Photo Gallery.

Town twinning

The following is a list of Tabriz's sister cities:

Notes

References

External links

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