Structural and functional differences distinguish synovial joints from cartilagenous joints (synchondroses and symphyses) and fibrous joints (sutures, gomphoses, and syndesmoses). The main structural differences between synovial and fibrous joints is the existence of a capsule surrounding the articulating surfaces of a synovial joint and the presence of lubricating synovial fluid within that capsule (synovial cavity).
|Gliding joints (or planar joints)||the carpals of the wrist||These joints allow only gliding or sliding movements.|
|Hinge joints||the elbow (between the humerus and the ulna)||These joints act like a door hinge, allowing flexion and extension in just one plane.|
|Pivot joints||the elbow (between the radius and the ulna)||This is where one bone rotates about another.|
|Condyloid joints (or ellipsoidal joints)||the wrist||A condyloid joint is where two bones fit together with an odd shape (e.g. an ellipse), and one bone is concave, the other convex. Some classifications make a distinction between condyloid and ellipsoid joints.|
|Saddle joints||the thumb (between the metacarpal and carpal)||Saddle joints, which resemble a saddle, permit the same movements as the condyloid joints.|
|Ball and socket joints||the shoulder and hip joints||These allow a wide range of movement.|