Sweet

Sweet

[sweet]
Sweet, Henry, 1845-1912, English philologist and phonetician. An authority on Anglo-Saxon and the history of the English language, Sweet was also a pioneer in modern scientific phonetics. His History of English Sounds (1874) was a landmark in that study. In 1901 he was made a reader in phonetics at Oxford. Among his other writings are A Handbook of Phonetics (1877), A New English Grammar (2 parts, 1892-95), The History of Language (1900), The Sounds of English (1908), and works on Anglo-Saxon, Middle English, and Icelandic. Sweet was the model for Professor Higgins in G. B. Shaw's play Pygmalion.

Cereal grain plant of the family Poaceae (or Gramineae), probably native to Africa, and its edible starchy seeds. All types raised chiefly for grain belong to the species Sorghum vulgare, which includes varieties of grain sorghums and grass sorghums (grown for hay and fodder), and broomcorn (used in making brooms and brushes). The strong grass usually grows 2–8 ft (0.5–2.5 m) or higher. The seeds are smaller than those of wheat. Though high in carbohydrates, sorghum is of lower feed quality than corn. Resistant to drought and heat, sorghum is one of Africa's major cereal grains. It is also grown in the U.S., India, Pakistan, and northern and northeastern China. Substantial quantities are also grown in Iran, the Arabian Peninsula, Argentina, Australia, and southern Europe. The grain is usually ground into meal for porridge, flatbreads, and cakes.

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Food plant (Ipomoea batatas; family Convolvulaceae) native to tropical America and widely cultivated in tropical and warm temperate climates. Botanically unrelated to the white, or Irish, potato or the yam, sweet potatoes are oblong or pointed oval, tuberous roots. Skin colour ranges from light buff to brown to purplish red; the pulp may be white (highest in starch) to orange (also high in carotene) to purple. Long, trailing plant stems bear funnel-shaped flowers tinged with pink or rose violet. Sweet potatoes are served baked or mashed and used as pie filling.

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Sweet pea (Lathyrus odoratus)

Annual plant (Lathyrus odoratus) of the pea family (see legume), native to Italy and widely cultivated elsewhere for its beautiful, fragrant flowers. The long (4–6 ft, or 1.2–2 m), vinelike stem climbs by means of tendrils and bears featherlike leaves. White, pink, red, violet, or purple flowers, reminiscent of butterflies in shape, are borne singly or in clusters of two to four. The fruit is a hairy pod about 2 in. (5 cm) long. Hundreds of varieties of sweet pea have been developed. The plant was the subject of important genetics experiments by Reginald Crundall Punnett and William Bateson.

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or sweet marjoram

Perennial herb (Majorana hortensis) of the mint family, or its fresh or dried leaves and flowering tops. Native to the Mediterranean and western Asia, marjoram is cultivated as an annual where winter temperatures kill the plant. It is used to flavor many foods. Various other aromatic herbs or undershrubs of the genera Origanum (see oregano) and Majorana of the mint family are also called marjoram.

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Herb consisting of the dried leaves of Ocimum basilicum, an annual herb of the mint family, native to India and Iran. The dried large-leaf varieties have a fragrant aroma faintly reminiscent of anise, with a warm, sweet, aromatic, mildly pungent flavour. The dried leaves of common basil are less fragrant and more pungent. Basil is widely grown as a kitchen herb. Tea made from basil leaves is a stimulant. The heart-shaped basil leaf is a symbol of love in Italy.

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(born Oct. 31, 1895, Paris, France—died Jan. 29, 1970, Marlow, Buckinghamshire, Eng.) British military historian and strategist. He left Cambridge University to join the British army at the outbreak of World War I and retired as a captain in 1927. He was an early advocate of air power and mechanized tank warfare. He wrote for London newspapers from 1925 to 1945. His writings on strategy, which emphasized the elements of mobility and surprise, were more influential in Germany than in France or England; his “expanding torrent” theory of attack became the basis for German blitzkrieg warfare in 1939–41. The author of more than 30 books, he was knighted in 1966.

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St. Basil, detail of a mosaic, 12th century; in the Palatine Chapel, Palermo, Sicily, Italy.

(born AD 329, Caesarea Mazaca, Cappadocia—died Jan. 1, 379, Caesarea; Western feast day January 2; Eastern feast day January 1) Early church father. Born into a Christian family in Cappadocia, he studied at Caesarea, Constantinople, and Athens and later established a monastic settlement on the family estate at Annesi. He opposed Arianism, which was supported by the emperor Valens and his own bishop Dianius, and organized resistance to it after 365. He succeeded Eusebius as bishop of Caesarea in 370. He died shortly after Valens, whose death in battle opened the way for the victory of Basil's cause. More than 300 of his letters survive; several of his Canonical Epistles have become part of canon law in Eastern Orthodoxy.

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(born Oct. 31, 1895, Paris, France—died Jan. 29, 1970, Marlow, Buckinghamshire, Eng.) British military historian and strategist. He left Cambridge University to join the British army at the outbreak of World War I and retired as a captain in 1927. He was an early advocate of air power and mechanized tank warfare. He wrote for London newspapers from 1925 to 1945. His writings on strategy, which emphasized the elements of mobility and surprise, were more influential in Germany than in France or England; his “expanding torrent” theory of attack became the basis for German blitzkrieg warfare in 1939–41. The author of more than 30 books, he was knighted in 1966.

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St. Basil, detail of a mosaic, 12th century; in the Palatine Chapel, Palermo, Sicily, Italy.

(born AD 329, Caesarea Mazaca, Cappadocia—died Jan. 1, 379, Caesarea; Western feast day January 2; Eastern feast day January 1) Early church father. Born into a Christian family in Cappadocia, he studied at Caesarea, Constantinople, and Athens and later established a monastic settlement on the family estate at Annesi. He opposed Arianism, which was supported by the emperor Valens and his own bishop Dianius, and organized resistance to it after 365. He succeeded Eusebius as bishop of Caesarea in 370. He died shortly after Valens, whose death in battle opened the way for the victory of Basil's cause. More than 300 of his letters survive; several of his Canonical Epistles have become part of canon law in Eastern Orthodoxy.

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known as Basil Bulgaroctonus (“Slayer of the Bulgars”)

(born 957/958—died Dec. 15, 1025) Byzantine emperor (976–1025). Crowned coemperor with his brother in 960, he had to exile the grand chamberlain (985) and defeat rival generals (989) in order to gain the authority to rule. Basil became one of the strongest Byzantine emperors, winning territory in the Balkans, Mesopotamia, Armenia, and Georgia. He was noted for his victory (1014) in the war with Bulgaria, which ended with his blinding all the soldiers in the defeated Bulgarian army. He increased his domestic authority by attacking the landed interests of the military aristocracy and of the church. Because Basil left no able successor, the gains of his rule were soon undone.

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known as Basil the Macedonian

(born 826/835, Thrace—died Aug. 29, 886) Byzantine emperor (867–86) and founder of the Macedonian dynasty. Born into a peasant family in Macedonia, he won employment in official circles in Constantinople and was made chamberlain by the reigning emperor, Michael III. He became coemperor with Michael in 866 and murdered him the next year. Basil won victories against Muslim forces along the eastern borders of Asia Minor and asserted control over Slavs in the Balkans. He gained ground in southern Italy but lost Syracuse (878) and other key cities in Sicily to the Muslims. He also formulated the Greek legal code known as the Basilica. In later life Basil showed signs of madness.

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Sweet William (Dianthus barbatus)

Garden plant (Dianthus barbatus) in the pink family, grown for its clusters of small, brightly coloured flowers. It usually grows as a biennial, with seed sown the first year producing spring-flowering plants the second year. The plants grow about 2 ft (60 cm) high and produce numerous flowers with fringed petals in white, pink, or rose to violet, sometimes also bicoloured.

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Sweet sugar- or chocolate-based confection. The Egyptians made candy from honey (combined with figs, dates, nuts, and spices), sugar being unknown. With the spread of sugarcane cultivation in the 15th century, the industry began to grow. In the late 18th century the first candy-manufacturing machinery was produced. The main ingredients are cane and beet sugars combined with other carbohydrate foods such as corn syrup, cornstarch, honey, molasses, and maple sugar. To the sweet base are added chocolate, fruits, nuts, peanuts, eggs, milk, flavours, and colours. Common varieties include hard candies (crystallized sugar), caramels and toffees, nougats, jellies, fondants, marshmallows, marzipans, truffles, cotton candies, licorices, and chewing gums.

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Polo is a brand of different flavour sweets, which have a hole in the centre. The peppermint flavoured polo was first manufactured in the United Kingdom in 1948. The name ‘Polo’ is reportedly from the word ‘Polar’ and is to symbolize the cool and fresh feeling one gets from sucking a Polo.

History

Polo mints were introduced by Rowntree in 1948, and Polo fruits followed soon after.

Polo is still Britain's number one mint brand with approximately 20 million mints produced every day and an average of one hundred and fifty Polos eaten every second.

Different Polos

Over the years Rowntree and Nestlé have come up with variations of the Original Polo mint. Some of these have been successes, whereas others have flopped. However, none have been as successful as the Original Polo mint.

  • Spearmint: These Polos have a strong spearmint flavour and aroma. The original design of the sweets had turquoise flecks on them, however now they are simply clear white to reduce E numbers.
  • Fruit: These Polos are fruit flavored and come in several flavours, all in one tube. These Polos are not mints but boiled fruits. Flavours included are strawberry, blackberry, orange, lemon, and lime.
  • Polo Gummies: Fruit-flavoured soft gummy sweets in the polo shape.
  • Sugar free: This is the sugar free version of the Original Polo containing sorbitol
  • Polo Holes: Nestlé experimented with this variation for a while. It was the original Polo flavour in the shape of the hole from the middle of the sweet.
  • Mini Strong Polos: These were tiny Polos (about 1 cm in diameter) with a strong minty flavour. They were packaged in a box shaped like a Polo Mint. They were also available in a not so successful orange flavour which is no longer available
  • Smoothies: These creamy sweets came in flavours such as blackcurrant, sunshine fruits and strawberry.
  • Citrus: Lemon flavoured Polos
  • Butter Mint Polos: These were butter mint flavoured
  • Ice: These flavour Polos came in a shiny blue wrapper, and had a cooler mint taste.
  • Cinnamon flavoured Polos
  • Paan flavoured Polos (Previously available in India)
  • Mint O Fruit: (available in Indonesia). These come in the following flavours: Raspberry Mint, Blackcurrant Mint, Peppermint, Lime Mint and Cherry Mint. These polos come with the following slogan "Think Plong! Masih Ada Bolong!" These are also sold in the UK in some Poundland stores.

Prior to this Rowntree had already experimented with different polos in the 1980s. The boiled fruit ones were always available but they briefly made:

  • Lemon: Similar to the citrus flavour that Nestlé put out around 10 years later, but not identical.
  • Orange: Similar to the lemon, but in an orange packet.

The mint

A Polo is approximately 1.9cm in diameter, 0.4cm deep and has a 0.8cm wide hole. The original Polo is white in colour with a hole in the middle, and the word 'POLO' embossed twice on one side around the ring, hence the popular slogan The Mint with the Hole.

Ingredient of the main variety include: sugar, glucose syrup, modified starch, stearic acid (of vegetable origin), lubricant(570) and mint oils.

Packing and look

Polos are found in all major and minor newsagents, sweet shops, and supermarkets. They are usually sold separately in tubes that are about 10cm tall containing 25 Polos, but can be found in multi-packs ranging from 3 to 8. The tube of Polos is tightly wrapped with silver foil backed plastic. A green and blue paper wrapper, with the word ‘POLO’, binds the foil wrapper. The Os in ‘Polo’ are the images of the sweet. For the spearmint flavour, the paper wrapper is a darker green also the Extra Strong flavour is in a black paper wrapper.

Trademark woes

In 1994 when the new Trade Marks Act was introduced in UK, Nestlé applied to register the shape of the Polo mint. The application featured a white, annular mint without any lettering. This application however was opposed by Kraft Food, the current owner of Life Savers, and Mars UK because of the lack of distinctive character of the mint in question. Nestlé’s application was allowed to proceed if it agreed to narrow the description of the mint i.e. the dimensions of the mint were limited to the standard dimensions of the Polo mint and that it was limited to ‘mint flavoured compressed confectionery’.

Kraft Foods and Swizzels Matlow (owner of British Navy Sweets) have made similar applications for annular sweets bearing the mark LIFESAVERS or NAVY. Nestle has tried to oppose these trademark applications but have failed as the court ruled that customers would be able to distinguish between a Polo, a Lifesaver and a British Navy mint as all of them have their marks boldly and prominently embossed on the mint.

Marketing slogans/formula

  • "Polo, the mint with the hole"
  • "The Mint,The Hole Mint and Nothing But The Mint!"
  • "Holy Moly Minty!"
  • "HOLE-Y REFRESHING"
  • "Life's a Hole Lot Cooler!"
  • "People Like Polo!"

Media & Entertainment

  • Polo mints are mentioned in the song "Low Budget" by The Kinks. "We're all on our uppers were all going skint I used to smoke cigars but now I suck polo mints".
  • The Polo mints are an important visual theme throughout the BBC Three comedy television programme The Mighty Boosh. They can be seen on many of the costumes and props (as well as in the opening graphics), and are directly referenced to on several occasions, most notably during the Hitcher's song ("creeping in your room in the dead of night / with my solo Polo vision" - the character of the Hitcher has a big Polo over one of his eyes.).
  • A recent advertisement claims that Polos are now 13.063% mintier.
  • Polo mint has become rhyming slang for skint(a slang term meaning to have no money) and for bint(slang for "woman").

See also

Other UK Sweets/mints/Candy

External links

References

Polo Gallery

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