, commonly known as the cheese tree
, is a species of tree
in the Euphorbiaceae
family. It is native to eastern Australia
, where it grows in rainforests and wetter sclerophyll
forests. Frugivorous birds such as pigeons, figbirds and parrots consume its fruit.
It grows as a woody shrub or small tree to 8 m
), although occasionally reaching 15 m (50 ft), with flaky brownish-grey bark. It has simple alternate-arranged elliptical leaves 3–10 cm
) in length and 1.5-4 cm (0.6-1.4 in) wide; the species may be partly deciduous in winter. Flowering may occur at any time of year; the cheese tree has both single female and male flowers, which are found in groups of three. Both sexes are green-yellow, with the male flowers about 0.7 cm and the female 0.5 cm in diameter. The most notable feature are the small pumpkin-shaped fruit, which are green at first before turning shades of white and pink. Divided into segments radially, they eventually split open to reveal bright red 0.5 cm seeds from November to April.
Taxonomy and naming
The cheese tree gains its common name for its cheese-shaped fruit. Other common names include water gum, button wood, pencil cedar, and jow-war
. The cheese tree was originally described by Swiss botanist Johannes Müller Argoviensis
in 1865 as Phyllanthus ferdinandi
before being given its current binomial name by Frederick Manson Bailey
in 1902. Its specific epithet honours Victorian State Botanist Ferdinand von Mueller
An uncommon variety, pubens, known as the hairy cheese tree, is smaller, with leaves and fruit finely hairy.
Distribution and habitat
The cheese tree grows in both clay and sandy soils, and is found in rainforest and wetter areas in sclerophyll forest, where it may be associated with such species as Bangalay (Eucalyptus botryoides
), Woollybutt (E. longifolia
), Forest Red Gum (E. tereticornis
) Thin-leaved Stringybark (E. eugenioides
) and swamp she-oak (Casuarina glauca
). The hairy cheese tree grows with magenta lilly pilly (Syzygium paniculatum
), broad-leaved paperbark (Melaleuca quinquenervia
), and Rhodomyrtus
It is found from central Queensland to the vicinity of Ulladulla in southern New South Wales.
The fruits are eaten by several bird species, including the Figbird
), Lewin's Honeyeater
, (Meliphaga lewinii
), Olive-backed Oriole
), Topknot Pigeon
), Brown Cuckoo-dove
), Australian King Parrot
) The Pied Currawong
) also eats the fruit but regurgitates them, while new leafy growth is eaten by the Rainbow Lorikeet
). It also serves as food for the larvae of the Shining Pencil-blue (Candalides hellenita
), and the Shining- or Common Oak-blue (Arhopala micale
The ladybird Scymnodes lividigaster feeds on the aphid Aphis eugeniae, which feeds on the cheese tree.
Glochidion ferdinandi is a long-lived species which may live for 60 years or more. It may sucker or resprout after bushfire. Seeds take 1-4 months to germinate.
It is an easily grown pioneer species useful in bush regeneration
and natural landscaping
of areas to which it is native in eastern Australia. The species may colonise disturbed areas, and is a fast growing plant. Plants require ample water but adapt to a wide range of soils and sun or shade. It can be grown as an indoor plant in a bright position.