Sutherland

Sutherland

[suhth-er-luhnd]
Sutherland, Earl Wilbur, 1915-1974, American pharmacologist and physiologist, b. Burlingame, Kans., M.D., Washington Univ. Medical School, 1942. He was a professor at Washington Univ. (1945-53), at Western Reserve Univ. (now Case Western Reserve Univ., 1953-63), and at Vanderbilt Univ. (1963-74). Sutherland won the 1971 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine for elucidating the behavior of hormones at the cellular level. He isolated cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP) and demonstrated its involvement in various metabolic processes. His work paved the way for later research on cell signaling and gene expression.
Sutherland, George, 1862-1942, Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (1922-38), b. Buckinghamshire, England. He was taken by his family to Springville, Utah from England in 1864. After studying law at the Univ. of Michigan, he was admitted (1883) to the bar, practiced law in Utah, and was (1896-1900) a member of the state senate. Sutherland then served in the U.S. House of Representatives (1901-2), and Senate (1905-17). His important decisions included Powell v. Alabama (1932), where he ruled that a conviction in the notorious Scottsboro Case was unconstitutional, because the defendants had been deprived of a right to counsel. In Curtiss-Wright Export Corp. v. United States (1936), he found that the executive branch held certain powers in foreign affairs not dependent on congressional authorization. Sutherland is best remembered as a conservative who consistently voted against much of the New Deal social legislation that came before the court. He wrote Constitutional Power and World Affairs (1919).
Sutherland, Graham, 1903-80, English painter. Sutherland began his career as a painter at 35 and gained international acclaim with his paintings of war devastation. Among his major religious works are a tapestry for Coventry Cathedral and a series of paintings entitled Thorns. Realistically painted in sharp, cruel forms, they are symbolic of the Passion.

See studies by E. Sackville-West (1955) and D. Cooper (1962).

Sutherland, Dame Joan, 1926-, Australian soprano. Sutherland studied at the Sydney Conservatory, where she made her debut in Eugene Goossen's Judith in 1951. Beginning in 1952 she was a leading singer at the Royal Opera House Covent Garden in London. She debuted at both La Scala, Milan and the Metropolitan Opera in 1961. Sutherland was considered unsurpassed in the bel canto repertory among contemporary singers. She was particularly celebrated for her singing of the title role in Donizetti's Lucia di Lammermoor. She frequently performed with her husband, Richard Bonynge, conducting. She was created a Dame of the British Empire in 1979, and she retired in 1990.

See her autobiography (1998); biographies by R. R. Braddon (1962) and E. Greenfield (1973).

Sutherland or Sutherlandshire, former county, N Scotland. Under the Local Government Act of 1973, Sutherland became (1975) part of the new Highland region (now a council area).

(born Aug. 24, 1903, London, Eng.—died Feb. 17, 1980, London) British painter. After studying art in London, he taught and practiced printmaking (1926–40) at the Chelsea School of Art. His early work was characterized by an exacting representationalism that evolved into Surrealism. He turned primarily to painting circa 1935 and served as official war artist 1940–45; his war paintings are an evocative record of desolation. His “thorn period” began with his Crucifixion (1946), considered to be one of the most important religious paintings of the 20th century. In such late works he incorporated anthropomorphic insect and plant forms, particularly thorns, which he transformed into powerful, frightening totemic images. Sutherland was known, too, for his expressionistic, penetrating portraits. He also designed the enormous tapestry (circa 1955–61) for the new Coventry Cathedral.

Learn more about Sutherland, Graham (Vivian) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Nov. 7, 1926, Sydney, Austl.) Australian soprano. After debuting in Sydney in 1947, she moved to London. Having sung minor roles at Covent Garden from 1952, she established her status as one of the leading coloraturas of the 20th century in a 1959 performance of Lucia di Lammermoor. She made her Metropolitan Opera debut in 1961, and she became a favourite there and worldwide in bel canto roles until her retirement in 1991.

Learn more about Sutherland, Dame Joan with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Aug. 24, 1903, London, Eng.—died Feb. 17, 1980, London) British painter. After studying art in London, he taught and practiced printmaking (1926–40) at the Chelsea School of Art. His early work was characterized by an exacting representationalism that evolved into Surrealism. He turned primarily to painting circa 1935 and served as official war artist 1940–45; his war paintings are an evocative record of desolation. His “thorn period” began with his Crucifixion (1946), considered to be one of the most important religious paintings of the 20th century. In such late works he incorporated anthropomorphic insect and plant forms, particularly thorns, which he transformed into powerful, frightening totemic images. Sutherland was known, too, for his expressionistic, penetrating portraits. He also designed the enormous tapestry (circa 1955–61) for the new Coventry Cathedral.

Learn more about Sutherland, Graham (Vivian) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Nov. 7, 1926, Sydney, Austl.) Australian soprano. After debuting in Sydney in 1947, she moved to London. Having sung minor roles at Covent Garden from 1952, she established her status as one of the leading coloraturas of the 20th century in a 1959 performance of Lucia di Lammermoor. She made her Metropolitan Opera debut in 1961, and she became a favourite there and worldwide in bel canto roles until her retirement in 1991.

Learn more about Sutherland, Dame Joan with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Sutherland is a city in O'Brien County, Iowa, United States. The population was 707 at the 2000 census.

Geography

Sutherland is located at (42.972364, -95.496923).

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.9 square miles (2.3 km²), all of it land.

Demographics

As of the census of 2000, there were 707 people, 315 households, and 200 families residing in the city. The population density was 810.2 people per square mile (313.8/km²). There were 348 housing units at an average density of 398.8/sq mi (154.4/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 98.44% White, 0.14% African American, 0.71% Native American, 0.28% from other races, and 0.42% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.42% of the population.

There were 315 households out of which 22.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.4% were married couples living together, 7.0% had a female householder with no husband present, and 36.5% were non-families. 33.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 21.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.15 and the average family size was 2.71.

In the city the population was spread out with 20.2% under the age of 18, 5.7% from 18 to 24, 20.5% from 25 to 44, 22.5% from 45 to 64, and 31.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 47 years. For every 100 females there were 87.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 82.5 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $31,985, and the median income for a family was $39,250. Males had a median income of $30,000 versus $19,432 for females. The per capita income for the city was $16,345. About 2.0% of families and 3.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 1.6% of those under age 18 and 3.8% of those age 65 or over.

References

External links

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