This is because it is far older than other islands formed on the ridge, which lie much closer to the ridge (including Iceland, The Azores, Ascension Island, etc.). There are also two seamounts to the South-West of Bermuda, forming Argus Banks, and Challenger Banks. Neither of these breaks the surface of the ocean, but both support coral reefs and are popular fishing grounds. Although the volcanic base of Bermuda is igneous, it is covered by a limestone cap, formed by calcium-secreting marine organisms. This formed underwater, but, during ice ages, when sea levels were lower, the limestone broke down into sand. This blew into dunes in which the sand eventually fused back together to form an aeolian sandstone. Underwater, coral is present in the reefline which encompasses the archipelago. To the south, the reef line lies within a matter of yards from the shoreline. At its northward extremity, the reef lies fourteen miles from the north shore.
The island is one of the most northerly places where coral is found, and the reefs, which protect the soft, limestone coastlines from wave-erosion, are themselves protected by law. The island is thinly-covered by a red soil, high in iron, but low in magnesium. Yellowish leaf colour of plants in many areas of the island is a result of the low levels of magnesium, which is used in producing chlorophyll. Due to the lime content of the stone on which it sits, the soil is also very alkaline. In most parts of Bermuda, the soil is rarely more than a few inches deep, though, in some low-lying, inland areas it has collected quite deeply. At one point, the land mass of Bermuda was about 200 square miles, large enough to allow the genetic diversity for many plants and animals that established themselves to develop into unique species and sub-species. Because the limestone cap is porous, rainwater quickly sinks through it and there are no permanent streams, or standing bodies of freshwater. A well sunk anywhere in Bermuda will find water as soon as it reaches sea level (the water table). Unfortunately, this water is brackish sea water. The limestone filters salt from the sea water, and the further inland from the shore a well is sunk, the less saline the water. As the coastline is nowhere more than half-a-mile distant, there is no area in which this filtering effect produces drinkable water.
Despite the apparent lack of fresh groundwater, Bermuda is lush and green, a result of the consistent, high levels of rainfall. Bermuda's human inhabitants traditionally collect water from the roofs of their houses, and hillsides surfaced as catchments, the water being stored in tanks dug into the ground, often in the foundations of houses. In recent decades it was discovered that rain water, being less dense due to its lack of salinity, sits on top of the water table and mixes slowly. This lens can be siphoned off by wells and used for drinking. A private company, Watlington Waterworks, uses this method to obtain water which is provided to its customers by a system of mains. Most of the native and endemic flora and fauna arrived via natural dispersion from North America. Most notable of these was the juniper which evolved into the Bermuda cedar.
Bermuda's ecology has been altered radically since the 16th Century by humans and the plants and animals they introduced. Some species had actually become extinct long before this, including the Short-tailed Albatross, a species which occurs today only in the northern Pacific Ocean.
Flora Of 165 plant species found in Bermuda today, 14 are endemic (others are native), and 25 are endangered. When discovered, about 1503, the island's habitat was dominated by the remnant, old-growth forest of Bermuda cedars (juniperus bermudiana). Underwater archaeology of the caldera basin to the north shows that the area was once densely forested with cedars when it was above sea level. The cedar is an endemic species, though related to species found in North America. Its wood is an unusually deep red, indicative of the high iron content of the island's soil (which is similarly very red). Prior to human settlement, there were several million cedar trees in Bermuda. By the 1830s, large areas of Bermuda had been denuded by the shipbuilding industry. As that industry died-out in the 19th Century, however, the cedars rapidly recovered their numbers. By 1900, when the human population neared 20,000, the islands were again covered densely with cedar, although many of these were juvenile trees. The respite proved temporary, however. In the 1940s, it was realised that two species of scale mite, Lepidosaphes newsteadi and Carulaspis minima, had accidentally been introduced, and were rapidly killing off the cedars, which had no immunity to their toxicological effect. Attempts were made to control the infestation naturally, which involved the large-scale introduction of ladybird beetles (Coccinellidae), but these were to no avail. Over the next decade, roughly 8 million cedar trees were lost to the scale mites. Motor cars were legalised in Bermuda in 1948, as a result of changes wrought by the Second World War, and the resultant sprawl of the rapidly-growing population (which had reached 60,000 by the 1980s) outward from the pre-war population centres happened simultaneously with the destruction of the forests. Unlike in the 19th Century, many plant species that had been introduced, some, like the Casuarina, specifically to replace the wind break lost with the cedars, spread virulently. The cedar grows slowly by comparison to many of the introduced species, and has been unable to thrive in the presence of casurina and Brazilian pepper trees. Efforts to restore it centre around intensively managed land areas, such as gardens and golf courses. Other large plant species, which were never as numerous as the cedar, had also fared poorly in the presence of invasive species, but have become popular with gardners and their numbers also have increased in managed areas. These include two native species, the Bermuda olivewood (Elaeodendron laneanum), and the Bermuda palmetto (Sabal Bermudiana), the only native or endemic palm. In some coastal areas and inland marshes, Bermuda is the most northerly point at which mangrove trees are found. Smaller plants include many ferns. Notable among these is the rare Bermuda cave fern (Ctenitis sloanei). An even rarer fern, Diplazium laffanianum, no longer survives in the wild. The common Bermuda grass is not actually Bermudian, but a Mediterranean import. A native grass is the Blue-eyed grass (Sisyrinchium bermudiana), Bermudiana. This was thought to be endemic, but also appears in Ireland. Many of the smaller endemic and native plants of Bermuda are rare and endangered, but others have survived and prospered.
Fauna There were few species of land animal in Bermuda before the arrival of humans. The only vetebrate species was the Bermuda skink, or rock lizard (Eumeces longirostris). These were quite numerous, but have become rare due to predation by introduced species, and, especially, the introduction of glass bottles, in which they easily become trapped. Unlike the introduced anoles, their feet are unable to adhere to glass. Their range had been largely reduced to small islands of Castle Harbour, but they have re-colonised the mainland, and their numbers are increasing. The only other large land animals found on the island were crustaceans, notably two species of land crab, including the rare Giant Land Crab (Cardisoma quantami). Insects included the endemic, ground-burrowing Solitary bee, which has not been observed for several decades and is believed extinct. The native cicada also became extinct with the loss of the cedar forest. Other native insects survive, including the migratory Monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus), which has become threatened due to the loss of milkweed, which has been eradicated as a weed. The most numerous animals were, and are, birds. Several native species are related to North American species, including the Eastern Bluebird (Sialia sialis), and the White-eyed Vireo (Vireo griseus bermudianus). Both of these were common, but have suffered from loss of habitat, from competition for nest sites with introduced house sparrows (Passer domesticus), and nest-predation by starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) and kiskadees (Pitangus sulphuratus) - this last species was deliberately introduced as late as 1957, with the intent that it would control the previously introduced anoles. Other native birds, including the Grey catbird, have suffered from the same causes. The most famous Bermudian bird is the endemic Bermuda Petrel (Pterodroma cahow), or Cahow. This is a pelagic seabird which had dug burrows for its nests. Humans are believed to have killed millions of them after settlement began in 1609, and feral pigs, introduced presumably by Spaniards decades before, also attacked their nests. Before the 17th Century was over, the Cahow was believed to be extinct. After sightings of the bird at sea, a young Bermudian, David B. Wingate, theorised Cahows might still be nesting on rocky islets of Castle Harbour. He visited these islets with ornithologists Robert Cushman Murphy and Louis S. Mowbray in 1951 and discovered a handful of nesting pairs. Under Wingate's supervision, a conservation programme has steadily increased the Cahow's numbers. Species that arrived by natural dispersion and become native after human settlement include the barn owl (Tyto alba), and the snowy egret (Egretta thula).
In addition to casurinas, numerous other species of tree, bush, shrub, cacti, palm, and other grasses have been introduced, with many of them proving to be invasive species. Despite the decimation of the cedar, those parts of the island not covered in buildings and tarmac are now densely covered in trees and shrubbery, including allspice (Pimenta dioica ), fiddlewood, Norfolk Island pine (Araucaria heterophylla), bay grape (Coccoloba uvifera), Surinam cherry (Eugenia uniflora), poinciana (Delonix regia) , fan palms, coconut palm (Cocos nucifera), royal palm (Roystonea), pittusporum, Natal plum, loquat (Eriobotrya japonica), oleander (Nerium oleander), and hibiscus. Most of the introduced species have proved to be unequal to Bermuda's frequently fierce weather. A succession of winter storms and a few powerful hurricanes that have struck over the last two decades have reduced woodlands, and available nest sites for small birds. The number of large trees, particularly, has been reduced. Although cedars are adapted to the local climate, and not so affected by stormy weather, rising sea levels are beginning to inundate the roots of old-growth cedars near low-lying marshlands, causing many to die.
Many domestic animal species have been introduced, including dogs, horses, goats, sheep, chickens, and cats, with cats long having established a large feral population. Feral chickens have recently become numerous (since the government ended its policy of allowing members of the local shotgun club to shoot them), and feral rabbits can also be found. Populations of feral guniea pigs have been established and then eradicated. Feral pigs were hunted to extinction centuries ago. Today, introduced feral species, particularly cats, are blamed for falling numbers of native birds, from bluebirds to longtails, but the primary threats are loss of habitat, due now to overdevelopment, and climate change (rising sea levels, inceased hurricane activity, and rising temperatures are all having an effect on Cahow nests, particularly).
Contrary to common belief, Bermuda is not located within the tropics, but within the Middle latitudes, or Temperate Zone. The warm temperate, or subtropical (the term favoured by the tourism industry, although Bermuda's weather is not actually characteristic of the Subtropics, any more than of the tropics-the subtropics is not so much a geographical area as a collective term for areas with subtropical climates. Bermuda's climate is more truthfully described as Warm Temperate or Oceanic), weather is influenced by the Arctic air mass, the Westerlies, and the Gulf Stream. Bermuda has a very humid climate and, as a result, the summer-time heat index can be very high, even when the actual temperature seems moderate. In fact, the highs reached even during summer days are usually as much as ten to twenty degrees (Fahrenheit) lower than in areas farther to the north, including New York, Chicago, and areas of Alaska. Winter temperatures can be very chilly, and the powerful winds and heavy rain mean that the felt temperature can fall below freezing, even though the actual temperature may rarely drop much below 10°C. There has been a general warming trend observed, however, since the late 1980s. Freezing weather has not been recorded since the 19th Century, although hail is common in the winter.
Of the two dominating, and counter-acting weather effects over Bermuda, one may be termed regional, whereas the other is localised. The first of these results from the regular separation of large volumes of the Arctic air mass over the Canadian plains. With the prevailing wind direction in the Northern Hemisphere being from the West, this cold, dry air sweeps east, and southward across the Eastern half of the United States, before crossing over the Gulf Stream to reach Bermuda (hence Bermudians usually obtain a two-or-three day warning of the approach of bad weather by watching the weather reports of the Atlantic Seaboard). From September through June, and especially during the winter and spring, the cold fronts of these advancing air masses sweep powerfully across Bermuda, preceded by two or three days of progressively stormier, wetter, and more overcast weather. Once the Fronts pass, they leave cold, dry air, and clear skies behind them. The localised effect known as the Bermuda High, warm, high-pressure air, fuelled by the heat of the
Gulf Stream, rebuilds its strength for a few days before the advance of the next front causes progressively worsening weather. During the summer months, the Arctic air mass contracts, and its boundary moves north, resulting in weaker cold fronts that move more slowly, countered by a Bermuda High strengthened by the summer heat. The cold fronts are therefore further apart, and their effect less noticeable in Bermuda, although the weather can be very stormy even during relatively sunny summer days. Although the heavy, sustained rainfall associated with these fronts is largely absent during the summer, the relative humidity nears 100%, and dense, moving squalls frequently drop great quantities of water. It is not uncommon, during the summer, to ride on sunbaked roads, then round a corner to come suddenly on drenched and steaming tarmac where a squall has passed only minutes earlier. Consequently, although there is somewhat less rainfall during the summer months, Bermuda's rainfall remains relatively consistent throughout the year. The winter rainfall is most important, however, as, due to the lack of groundwater, this is the period when the islands' vegetation is able to store greater quantities of rainfall.
Bermuda's humidity moderates the extremes of temperatures reached (through the day, and through the year), with the difference between daily highs and low remaining fairly consistently about ten degrees Fahrenheit (although the arrival of a cold front can cause a more extreme temperature drop). The humidity also slows the rate at which the air gains and loses heat. The result is that, while Bermuda is generally warmer than the US North-East in Autumn and Winter, it is generally cooler in Spring and Summer, with temperatures reaching into the eighties in New York, or Chicago in late spring while Bermuda's temperature typically remains doggedly in the upper sixties, or low seventies. There is a distinct shift to summer weather, however, which usually occurs about the middle of June, and an almost as distinct shift back between late September and early October.
When settled, in the 17th century, first by the Virginia Company, then by its spin-off, the Somers Isles Company, Bermuda was divided into nine equally-sized administrative areas. These comprised one public territory (known as St. George's) and eight "tribes" (soon retitled as "parishes"). These "tribes" were subdivided into lots, separated by narrow tribe roads (supposedly created by clearing the path of a barrel rolled from the south to north shores). These roads served both to demark the boundaries of lots, and also as access routes to the shoreline, as the primary method of transport about Bermuda would remain by boat for the next three centuries. Each of the lots equated to shares in the company. Each of the tribes was named for a major "adventurer" (shareholder) of the Company. Most were nobles, who used the toponyms of their titles, hence most of the parishes bear place names from England, Scotland, or Wales: Devonshire (for William Cavendish, 1st Earl of Devonshire (1552-1626)), Hamilton (for James Hamilton, 2nd Marquess of Hamilton (1589-1625)), Pembroke (for William Herbert, 3rd Earl of Pembroke (1580-1630)), Southampton (for Henry Wriothesley, 3rd Earl of Southampton (1573–1624)), and Warwick (for Robert Rich, 2nd Earl of Warwick (1587–1658) ). The others are Paget (for William Paget, 4th Baron Paget de Beaudesert (1572-1629)), Sandys (for Sir Edwin Sandys (1561-1629)), and Smith's (for Sir Thomas Smith (1588-1625)). Hamilton Parish was originally named Bedford, after Lucy, Countess of Bedford, who sold her shares to the Scottish nobleman, James Hamilton. Devonshire Parish had originally been named Cavendish Tribe. The short-lived use of the word "tribes" for administrative regions appears to have been unique to the Bermuda example. The ninth parish was common (or King's, or general) land, not subdivided by tribe roads, and was named for the Patron Saint of England, Saint George. It includes the island and the town both of the same name.
Much of the data in this article is adapted from the CIA World Factbook 2000.
Natural ocurrence of hymenopterous parasitoids associated with Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Myrtaceae species in Entre Rios, Northeastern Argentina.(Report)
Jun 01, 2008; ABSTRACT Parasitoids of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) were monitored on ripe fruit of 3 native and 1 exotic, wild Myrtaceae...