USS Barbero (SS/A/G-317) was a Balao-class submarine of the United States Navy, named for a family of fishes commonly called surgeon fish. Her keel was laid by the Electric Boat Company of Groton, Connecticut on 25 March 1943. She was launched 12 December 1943, sponsored by Mrs. Katherine R. Keating, and commissioned 29 April 1944, with Lieutenant Commander Irvin S. Hartman in command.
On 27 December 1944, en route to Fremantle, Australia, Barbero, while at periscope depth, received an aerial bomb close aboard aft. This near miss damaged the port reduction gear and put her out of action for the remainder of the war.
Following conversion to a cargo submarine at Mare Island, Barbero was recommissioned, her hull classification symbol changed to SSA-317, and assigned to the Pacific Fleet on 31 March 1948. Between October 1948 and March 1950 she took part in an experimental program to evaluate her capabilities as a cargo carrier. Experimentation ended in early 1950 and she was decommissioned into the reserve 30 June 1950.
On 1 February 1955, Barbero entered Mare Island Naval Shipyard for her second conversion, equipping her to launch Regulus nuclear cruise missiles. Her hull classification symbol was accordingly changed to SSG-317 and she was recommissioned on 28 October 1955. She operated off the coast of California until April 1956 when she transited the Panama Canal and joined the Atlantic Fleet.
Upon witnessing the missile's landing, Summerfield stated, "This peacetime employment of a guided missile for the important and practical purpose of carrying mail, is the first known official use of missiles by any Post Office Department of any nation." Summerfield proclaimed the event to be "of historic significance to the peoples of the entire world," and predicted that "before man reaches the moon, mail will be delivered within hours from New York to California, to Britain, to India or Australia by guided missiles. We stand on the threshold of rocket mail."
Barbero ended her nuclear strategic deterrence patrols and returned to the Pacific for decommissioning 30 June 1964. She was struck from the Naval Vessel Registry on 1 July 1964, prior to being used as a target and sunk by on 7 October 1964, off Pearl Harbor.