Structure erected to strengthen a military position against attack. The defense of cities and trade centers, usually by high walls, has been important for centuries. The citadel was the fortress of the ancient world, appearing in cities of Egypt, Greece, and the Roman empire. By Classical Greek times, fortress architecture began incorporating ramparts (walled embankments) and towers. Roman fortresses of the 2nd century tended to be square or rectangular, and were usually of dressed (cut) stone. The medieval castle remained almost impregnable until gunpowder came into use.

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Stronghold is an unincorporated community in Modoc County, California near the Oregon border. The ZIP Code is 96431. The community is inside area code 530. Its coordinates are at elevation. Probably named for Captain Jack's Stronghold at the nearby Lava Beds National Monument.


In the state legislature Stronghold is located in the 1st Senate District, represented by Republican Dave Cox, and in the 2nd Assembly District, represented by Republican Doug LaMalfa. Federally, Stronghold is located in California's 4th congressional district, which has a Cook PVI of R +11 and is represented by Republican John Doolittle.


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