strain

strain

[streyn]
strain: see strength of materials.

Device for measuring the changes in distances between points in solid bodies that occur when the body is deformed. Strain gauges are used either to obtain information from which stresses in bodies can be calculated or to act as indicating elements on devices for measuring such quantities as force, pressure, and acceleration.

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In the physical sciences and engineering, a number that describes the relative deformation of elastic, plastic, and fluid materials under applied forces. It arises throughout the material as the particles of the material are displaced from their usual position. Normal strain is caused by forces perpendicular to planes or cross sections of the material, such as in a volume that is under pressure on all sides. Shear strain is caused by forces that are parallel to, and lie in, planes or cross sections, such as in a short metal tube that is twisted about its longitudinal axis. Seealso deformation and flow.

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