John Maclean MA (24 August 1879 - 30 November 1923) was a Scottish schoolteacher and revolutionary socialist. He is primarily known as a Marxist educator and notable for his outspoken opposition to the First World War.
Maclean is regarded as one of the leading figures of the Red Clydeside era. His imprisonment for agitation against the war earned him an international reputation and he was elected an honorary vice-president of the Congress of Soviets and appointed Bolshevik representative in Scotland.
Maclean was born in Pollokshaws
, then on the outskirts of Glasgow
, to parents of Highland
origin; his father Daniel (1845-1888) hailing from the Isle of Mull
and his mother Ann (1846-1914) from Corpach
. Raised in a Calvinist
household, Maclean trained as a schoolteacher under the auspices of the Free Church
and then attended part-time classes at the University of Glasgow
, graduating with a Master of Arts
degree in 1904. (Maclean often used the letters M.A. after his name when being published).
Maclean first came to politics through the Pollokshaws Progressive Union and Robert Blatchford
's Merrie England
. He became convinced that the living standards of the working-classes could only be improved by social revolution and it was as a Marxist
that he joined the Social Democratic Federation
(SDF), and remained in the organisation as it formed the British Socialist Party
Maclean was also an active member of the Co-operative movement and it was his prominent role that led the Renfrewshire Co-operative Societies to pressurise local school boards to provide facilities for adult classes in economics.
By the time of World War I
was of a revolutionary nature, although he worked with others on the left who were more reformist in outlook, such as his friend James Maxton
. He heavily opposed the war, as he felt it was a war of imperialism which divided workers from one another, as he explained in his Redcly182.jpg
(The attitude of the B.S.P.
His politics made him well known to the authorities of the day, and in 1915 he was arrested in 1915 under the Defence of the Realm Act and Govan School Board sacked him from his teaching post at Lorne Street School. As a consequence he became a full-time Marxist lecturer and organiser, educating other Glaswegian workers in Marxist theory. He would later found the Scottish Labour College.
During World War I he was active in anti-war circles and was imprisoned for his efforts in 1916, but was released in 1917 after demonstrations following the February Revolution in Russia.
Relationship with Russia
In January 1918 Maclean was elected to the chair of the Third All-Russian Congress of Soviets and a month later appointed Bolshevik consul in Scotland. He established a Consulate at 12 Portland Street in Glasgow but was refused recognition by the British Government.
As a revolutionary enemy of what he saw as an imperialist war, Maclean was fiercely opposed to the stance adopted by the leadership of the BSP around H. M. Hyndman. However he was not to be a part of the new leadership which replaced Hyndman in 1916.
Trial and imprisonment for sedition (1918)
On 15 April 1918, Maclean was arrested for sedition. He was refused bail and his trial fixed for 9 May in Edinburgh. He conducted his own defence in a defiant manner, refusing to plead and when asked if he objected to any of the jurors replying, "I object to the whole lot of them." The prosecution case was based on the testimony of witnesses who had attended his meetings, who quoted extracts from his speeches using notes they had written up from memory after the meeting. Maclean objected to his words being taken out of context, saying. "The main parts of my speech, in which my themes are developed are omitted. I want to expose the trickery of the British government and their police and their lawyers.
Maclean addressed the jury in an "impassioned speech" lasting 75 minutes, which he used to attack the capitalist system:
- "I had a lecture, the principal heading of which was “Thou shalt not steal; thou shalt not kill", and I pointed out that as a consequence of the robbery that goes on in all civilised countries today, our respective countries have had to keep armies, and that inevitably our armies must clash together. On that and on other grounds, I consider capitalism the most infamous, bloody and evil system that mankind has ever witnessed. My language is regarded as extravagant language, but the events of the past four years have proved my contention....
- "I wish no harm to any human being, but I, as one man, am going to exercise my freedom of speech. No human being on the face of the earth, no government is going to take from me my right to speak, my right to protest against wrong, my right to do everything that is for the benefit of mankind. I am not here, then, as the accused; I am here as the accuser of capitalism dripping with blood from head to foot.
He was sentenced to five years penal servitude, and imprisoned in Peterhead prison near Aberdeen. However, a militant campaign was launched for his release:
- "The call 'Release John Maclean was never silent. Every week the socialist papers kept up the barrage and reminded their readers that in Germany Karl Liebknecht was already free, while in 'democratic' Britain John Maclean was lying in a prison cell being forcibly fed twice a day by an India rubber tube forced down his gullet or up his nose. 'Is the Scottish Office' asked Forward. 'to be stained with a crime in some respects even more horrible and revolting, more callous and cruel, than that which the Governors of Ireland perpetrated on the shattered body of James Connolly?'
Following the armistice on 11 November, he was released on 3 December 1918, returning to Glasgow to a tumultuous welcome.
Formation of the Communist Party
As the BSP was the main constituent organisation which merged into the newly formed Communist Party of Great Britain
, Maclean was alienated from the new party despite his support for the Communist International
. He developed a belief that workers in Scotland could develop in a revolutionary direction more swiftly than their comrades in England and Wales, and attempted to found a Scottish Communist Party
. This grouping renamed itself the Communist Labour Party
and dropped Maclean's distinctive positions, so he left in disgust. He attempted to found a new Scottish Communist Party, without success. It seems that he may have become a member of the Socialist Labour Party
at this time.
It was around this time that Maclean formed the Scottish Workers Republican Party
which combined Communism
with a belief in Scottish independence
Maclean's call for a Communist Republic of Scotland was based on the belief that traditional Scottish society was structured along the lines of "Celtic communism". He argued that "the communism of the clans must be re-established on a modern basis" and raised the slogan "back to communism and forward to communism".
Death and legacy
His stay in Peterhead Prison in 1918 caused a considerable deterioration in his health, being force fed through hunger strikes,. Milton quotes a letter that Agnes, his wife, wrote to E. C. Fairchild (a leading member of the British Socialist Party
- "Well, John has been on hunger strike since July. He resisted the forcible feeding for a good while, but submitted to the inevitable. Now he is being fed by a stomach tube twice daily. He has aged very much and has the look of a man who is going through torture... Seemingly anything is law in regard to John. I hope you will make the atrocity public. We must get him out of their clutches. It is nothing but slow murder...
When he died in 1923, aged just 44, his reputation was such that several thousand people lined the streets of Glasgow to see his funeral procession pass. He left a legacy that has subsequently been claimed by both the Scottish Nationalist and Labour movements, making him rare in this respect amongst Scotland's historical figures. The modern Scottish Socialist Party lay claim to Maclean's political legacy, particularly the Scottish Republican Socialist Movement previously a faction (or "platform") within the SSP.
In his poem John Maclean (1879-1923)
- written by 1934 but only published later in the 1956 edition of Stony Limits and Other Poems
- Hugh MacDiarmid
railed that "of all Maclean's foes not one was his peer" and described Maclean as "both beautiful and red" in his 1943 poem Krassivy, Krassivy
This was likely the inspiration for the title of Krassivy
, a 1979 play by Glasgow writer Freddie Anderson
.. Maclean was eulogised as "the eagle o' the age" and placed in the Scottish pantheon
alongside Thomas Muir
and William Wallace
by Sidney Goodsir Smith
in his Ballant O John Maclean
. In 1948, MacDiarmid and Smith (among others) gave readings at a "huge mass meeting" at St. Andrew's Hall in Glasgow, organised by the Scottish-USSR Society to mark the 25th Anniversary of his death.
Maclean is the subject of a number of songs. Hamish Henderson makes reference to Maclean in the final verse of his Freedom Come-All-Ye and his John Maclean March was specifically written for the 25th anniversary memorial meeting. John Maclean was known as "The Fighting Dominie" and this forms the chorus of Matt McGinn's song The Ballad of John Maclean. He is also mentioned in several songs in the album Red Clydeside by Alistair Hulett and Dave Swarbrick, including Don't Sign Up for War (mp3), focusing on Maclean's opposition to WWI.
The Soviet Union (USSR) honoured Maclean with an avenue in central Leningrad - Maklin Prospekt - which ran north from the Fontanka towards the Moika. It has now, like Leningrad/St Petersburg itself, reverted to its original name, Angliisky Prospekt (English Avenue). In 1979, on the centenary of his birth, the USSR issued a 4 kopek commemorative postage stamp depicting Maclean.
- Anderson, Tom, John Maclean MA, Proletarian Press, Glasgow, 1930
- Aldred, Guy A., John Maclean: Martyr of the Class Struggle, Bakunin Press, Glasgow, 1932.
- Bell, Tom, John Maclean, Fighter for Freedom, Communist Party Scottish Committee, 1944.
- Broom, John, John Maclean, Loanhead, 1973
- Clunie, James, The Voice of Labour, Autobiography of a House Painter, Dunfermline, 1958
- Knox, William, Scottish Labour Leaders 1918-1939: A Biographical Dictionary (Ed. Dr. William Knox), Edinburgh, 1984, p.179. ISBN 0906391407
- Maclean, John, In the Rapids of Revolution: Essays, Articles, and Letters, 1902-23 Ed. Milton, Nan, Allison and Busby, London, 1978. ISBN 0-85031-175-6
- McGuigan, Kenny. John Maclean: A Working Class Hero. Wellred Books, London, 2005.
- McShane, Harry and Smith, Joan, No Mean Fighter, London, 1978. ISBN 0-904383-24-5
- McShane, Harry, "Remembering John Maclean: Portrait of a Scottish Revolutionary", New Edinburgh Review 19, 1972, p4-10
- Milton, Nan, John Maclean, Pluto Press Ltd., 1973. ISBN 0-902818-38-4.
- Ripley, Brian J.; John McHugh. John Maclean. Lives of the Left Series. Manchester Univ Press. 1 December 1989. ISBN 0-7190-2181-2
- Sherry, Dave. John Maclean. Bookmarks, London, 1998
- Thatcher, Ian D., "John Maclean: Soviet Versions", in History, Vol. 77, Issue 251, pp.421-429, October 1992
- Young, James D. John Maclean: Clydeside Socialist, Clydeside Press, Glasgow, 1992. ISBN 1-873586-10-8