(born April 22, 1916, New York, N.Y., U.S.—died March 12, 1999, Berlin, Ger.) U.S.-born British violinist and conductor. Raised in San Francisco, he made his debut at age seven. In 1927 he studied with George Enescu (1881–1955) in Paris; he returned to perform to tremendous acclaim in New York the same year and went on to astound audiences worldwide with his precocious depth and proficiency. From 1959 he lived in London, but he did not become a British citizen until 1985. He directed the Bath Festival (1958–68) and the Gstaad Festival from 1956. In 1958 he founded his own chamber orchestra. Often accompanied by his pianist sister, Hephzibah (1920–81), he also made recordings with the sitarist Ravi Shankar.
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The town, which was incorporated as a municipal borough in 1874, is one of six that federated to form the county borough of Stoke-on-Trent in 1910, along with Hanley, Tunstall, Burslem, Longton and Fenton. It is the seat of the city's council, though Stoke-on-Trent's city centre is, usually regarded as being the nearby town of Hanley which, since federation, has been the most commercially important of the Six Towns.
The canal, mainline railway, and trunk road passed through the centre of Stoke. Stoke also had the main railway station (other towns were connected by the "loop" line) making the name of Stoke perhaps the most familiar outside the area. It made sense to name the city after the oldest and most commonly recognised name, even though it was not then the most significant town from a commercial perspective. (The commercial centre was Hanley, elevated and therefore relatively free, for most of the year, of the city's smog and smoke.).
The Anglian name given to this ancient place of meeting and worship was the 'stoc' (meeting place) on the Trent. It was the site of the first church in the area, built of wood around the year 670, later rebuilt in stone, and now known as Stoke Minster A significant small town grew up around this church.
In the 18th Century, the "Grand Trunk" canal came along the Trent valley to carry coal cheaply to the Potteries (and pottery safely away). Many of the promoters of the canal were pottery magnates.
In the 19th century, the railways, too, came along the valley. The mainline Stoke-on-Trent railway station was opened by the North Staffordshire Railway on October 9, 1848, replacing the temporary station sited at Whieldon road which was constructed for the opening of the first NSR line on April 17, 1848. Travellers to the region would change trains at Stoke for local trains to their ticketed destination.