Side-stick control, however, was adopted by The Wright Brothers, and by some of the other aviation pioneers. By the end of World War Two, however, a control column set between the pilot’s legs had become the norm. During the war the side-stick did appear in the B-24 as an autopilot control - a small column or joystick mounted alongside the left leg of the aircraft captain. This enabled him to control the aircraft directly through the autopilot when flying in formation. It was an extension of the system whereby the bomb aimer exercised control of the aircraft in yaw when approaching a target.
During the war years the position of the throttles varied considerably between aircraft, from on the right, on the left and in the centre. German fighter aircraft typically had a left throttle, while British aircraft had the throttle both left and centrally. American aircraft also differed. The historical placement of a left-hand throttle led the side-stick to be generally located to the right.
In the Tu-16 jet bomber and in its civilian version (the TU-104) a side stick autopilot control was mounted on the right arm rest of the captain’s seat. The side-stick idea was revived on and off during the 1950s but even with power assisted controls, there was not enough room to accommodate the mechanical linkages for true side-stick control of elevators and ailerons which was required in case of failure. Only when FBW design dispensed with the need for mechanical reversionary back- up was side-stick fully practicable.
In the 1980s the Airbus 320 was the first production airliner with side-stick primary operating controls operating through FBW, while Boeing from its 707 to 777 stayed with the traditional column wheel and column primary controls.
During the 1980s the Swedish Air Force considered the use of s side stick in the JAS 39 Gripen. This was eventually ruled out for number of reasons. These included the desire by the air force for the pilot to have left hand use of the stick in an emergency, unfavourable comments from Swedish pilots who had flown the F-16, and problems of existing control displacement caused by relocating the stick to the left console.
A side-stick control can either be a displacement type in which the small control column replicates the movement of a joystick, but over much smaller angles. Or it can be virtually fixed and respond to the force being applied by the pilot’s hand. With both methods movement or pressure is detected by sensors that feed data to a flight control system, which in turn controls the power units that move the control surfaces.
There is some debate as to whether the side-stick is better as a force or movement controller. Although the prototype F-16 was equipped with a rigid stick, a very small amount of movement was introduced before the aircraft went into production.
With the advent of more military female aircrew, a consideration of pilot strength characteristics may be more critical. Hodgson (2001) found that one side-stick force gradient could accommodate an extended user population that included females.
Commercial airline pilots who sit side-by-side have also been asked if they find it difficult or awkward when they change seats, so that they must use their other hand on the stick. Experience during the development of the A320 has shown that when taking off the pilot in the P1 (left) position, with the stick on the left, typically rolled slightly during rotation. This was caused by the natural lie of the forearm and the plane of rotation of the wrist. So the aircraft was re-moded to always maintain a wings-level attitude in takeoff (there was a similar but opposite effect for the pilot in the P2 position).
Since the two side-sticks are not linked mechanically in the Airbus, there was considerable debate over the relative authority that each stick should have. One favourable design which emerged was as follows:
In this way it was intended that if there were a conflict of input, the consequences would favour the more intelligent pilot not the strongest. The electronic primary flight display attitude indicator for the A320 also includes symbols to show the position of each stick relative to the neutral position.
Your Summer Fashion First Aid Kit; from Stick-On Bras to Nude Knickers, There's an Answer to All Your Problems
May 09, 2011; Byline: by Charlotte Kemp THE fine, warm weather has brought with it a host of fashion and beauty dilemmas, from how to avoid VPL...
Fashion First Aid in the Sun; from Stick-On Bras to Nude Knickers, There's an Answer to All Your Seasonal Problems. BEAUTY CONFIDENTIAL
Jun 23, 2011; Byline: Charlotte Kemp THE fine, warm weather has brought with it a host of fashion and beauty dilemmas, from how to avoid VPL...
Exclusive to Rowantree Stoneworks (protected by Patent No 2 294 959), Stick on Quoins are an excellent means of improving the aesthetic appeal of any property.
Feb 16, 2011; Exclusive to Rowantree Stoneworks (protected by Patent No 2 294 959), Stick on Quoins are an excellent means of improving the...