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stereo cilium

Cilium

[sil-ee-uhm]

A cilium (plural cilia) is an organelle found in eukaryotic cells. Cilia are tail-like projections extending approximately 5–10 micrometers outwards from the cell body.

There are two types of cilia: motile cilia, which constantly beat in a single direction, and non-motile or primary cilia, which typically serve as sensory organelles. Along with flagella, they make up a group of organelles known as undulipodia.

Cilia may be "viewed as sensory cellular antennae that coordinate a large number of cellular signaling pathways, sometimes coupling the signaling to ciliary motility or alternatively to cell division and differentiation.

Types and distribution

Cilia are rare in plants, occurring most notably in cycads. Ciliates possess motile cilia exclusively and use them for either locomotion or to simply move liquid over their surface. Some ciliates bare groups of cilia that are fused together into large mobile projections called cirri (singular, cirrus).

Larger eukaryotes, such as mammals, have motile cilia as well. Motile cilia are rarely found alone, usually present on a cell's surface in large numbers and beating in coordinated waves. In humans, for example, motile cilia are found in the lining of the trachea (windpipe), where they sweep mucus and dirt out of the lungs. In female mammals, the beating of cilia in the Fallopian tubes moves the ovum from the ovary to the uterus.

In comparison to motile cilia, non-motile (or primary) cilia usually occur one per cell. The outer segment of the rod photoreceptor cell in the human eye is connected to its cell body with a specialized non-motile cilium. The dendritic knob of the olfactory neuron, where the odorant receptors are located, is also carrying non-motile cilia (about 10 cilia / dendritic knobs). Beyond these examples, almost all mammalian cells have a single non-motile primary cilium, and only recently has great progress been made in understanding the function of the primary cilium. Although the primary cilium was discovered in 1898, it has largely been ignored since then. Until the 1990s, the prevailing view of the primary cilium was that it was merely a vestigial organelle, without important function. Recent findings regarding its physiological roles in chemical sensation, signal transduction, and control of cell growth, have led scientists to acknowledge its importance in cell function, with the discovery of its role in diseases not previously recognized to involve the dysgenesis and dysfunction of cilia, such as polycystic kidney disease and congenital heart disease. The primary cilium is now known to play an important role in the function of many human organs.

Assembly and maintenance

To grow a cilium, the building blocks of the cilia such as tubulins and other partially assembled axonemal proteins are added to the ciliary tips which point away from the cell body. In most species bi-directional motility called intraflagellar transport or IFT plays an essential role to move these building materials from the cell body to the assembly site. IFT also carries the disassembled material to be recycled from the ciliary tip back to the cell body. By regulating the equilibrium between these two IFT processes, the length of cilia can be maintained dynamically.

Exceptions where IFT is not present include Plasmodium falciparum which is one of the species of Plasmodium that cause malaria in humans. In this parasite, cilia assemble in the cytoplasm.

Cilium-related disease

Ciliary defects can lead to a number of human diseases. Genetic mutations compromising the proper functioning of cilia, cilopathies, can cause chronic disorders such as primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), nephronophthisis or Senior-Loken syndrome. In addition, a defect of the primary cilium in the renal tube cells can lead to polycystic kidney disease (PKD). In another genetic disorder called Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS), the mutant gene products are the components in the basal body and cilia.

Lack of functional cilia in mammalian Fallopian tubes can cause ectopic pregnancy. A fertilized ovum may not reach the uterus if the cilia are unable to move it there. In such a case, the ovum will implant in the Fallopian tubes, causing a tubal pregnancy, the most common form of ectopic pregnancy.

Since the flagellum of human sperm is actually a modified cilium, ciliary dysfunction can also be responsible for male infertility.

Of interest, there is an association of primary ciliary dyskinesia with left-right anatomic abnormalities such as situs inversus (a combination of findings known as Kartagener's syndrome) and other heterotaxic defects. These left-right anatomic abnormalities can also result in congenital heart disease. In fact, it has been shown that proper cilial function is responsible for the normal left-right asymmetry in mammals.

Cilia as an origin for many multi-symptom genetic diseases

Recent findings in genetic research have suggested that a large number of genetic disorders, both genetic syndromes and genetic diseases, that were not previously related in the medical literature, may be, in fact, highly related in the root cause of the widely-varying set of medical symptoms that are clinically visible in the disorder. These have been grouped as an emerging class of diseases called cilopathies. The underlying cause may be a dysfunctional molecular mechanism in the primary cilia structures, organelles which are present in many diverse cellular types througout the human body. Cilia defects adversely affect "numerous critical developmental signaling pathways" essential to cellular development and thus offer a plausible hypothesis for the often multi-symptom nature of a large set of syndromes and diseases. Known ciliopathies include primary ciliary dyskinesia, Bardet-Biedl syndrome, polycystic kidney and liver disease, nephronophthisis, Alstrom syndrome, Meckel-Gruber syndrome and some forms of retinal degeneration.

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