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Satires of Juvenal

The Satires are a collection of satirical poems by the Latin author Juvenal written in the late 1st and early 2nd centuries CE.

Juvenal is credited with sixteen known poems divided between five books; all are in the Roman genre of Satire, which, at its most basic in the time of the author, comprised a wide-ranging discussion of society and social mores in dactylic hexameter. These five books were discrete works, and there is no reason to assume that they were published at the same time or that they are identical in theme or in approach. The poems are not individually titled, but translators have often added titles for the convenience of readers.

  • Book I: Satires 1-5
  • Book II: Satire 6
  • Book III: Satires 7-9
  • Book IV: Satires 10-12
  • Book V: Satires 13-16 (Satire 16 is incompletely preserved)

Roman Satura was a formal literary genre rather than being simply clever, humorous critique in no particular format. Juvenal wrote within this tradition, which originated with Lucilius and included the Sermones of Horace and the Satires of Persius. In a tone and manner ranging from irony to apparent rage, Juvenal criticizes the actions and beliefs of many of his contemporaries, providing insight more into value systems and questions of morality and less into the realities of Roman life. The author employs outright obscenity less frequently than Martial or Catullus, but the scenes painted in his text are no less vivid or lurid for that discretion.

The author makes constant allusion to history and myth as a source of object lessons or exemplars of particular vices and virtues. Coupled with his dense and elliptical Latin, these tangential references indicate that the intended reader of the Satires was highly educated. The Satires are concerned with perceived threats to the social continuity of the Roman upper classes: social-climbing foreigners, unfaithfulness, and other more extreme excesses of their own class. The intended audience of the Satires constituted a subset of the Roman elite, primarily adult males of a more conservative social stance.

Synopsis of the Satires

Book I

Satire I: It is Hard not to Write Satire

It is hard not to write Satire. For who is so tolerant
of the unjust City, so steeled, that he can restrain himself,
when...
difficile est saturam non scribere. nam quis iniquae
tam patiens urbis, tam ferreus, ut teneat se,
... cum ...
(1.30-32)

171 lines. This so-called "Programmatic Satire", lays out for the reader a catalogue of ills and annoyances that prompt the narrator to write Satire: eunuchs getting married, elite women performing in a beast hunt, the dregs of society suddenly becoming wealthy by gross acts of sycophancy, et cetera. To the extent that it is programmatic, this satire concerns the first book rather than the satires of the other four known books. The narrator explicitly marks the writings of Lucilius as the model for his book of poems (lines 19-20), although he claims that to attack the living as his model did incurs great risk (lines 165-67). In sum, the narrator contends that Roman society is no longer functioning to ensure social justice – as he conceives it:

Dare something worthy of exile to tiny Gyara and death row,
if you want to be anything at all. Probity is praised – and it shivers in the street.
aude aliquid brevibus Gyaris et carcere dignum,
si vis esse aliquid. probitas laudatur et alget.
(1.73-74)

  • lines 1.1-19 – Since there are so many poets wasting paper and everyone’s time anyway – why not write?
  • lines 1.20-80 – The narrator recites a catalogue of social deviants and criminals that demand Satire be written.
  • lines 1.81-126 – Since the dawn of history, greed and fiscal corruption have never been worse.
  • lines 1.127-146 – The narrator contrasts a typical day in the life of poor clients with that of their self-indulgent patron.
  • lines 1.147-171 – The future cannot be worse than the present, yet only the dead better be satirized - if you want to live in safety.

Satire II: Hypocrites are Intolerable

I get an itch to run off beyond the Sarmatians and the frozen sea,
every time those men who pretend to be old-time paragons of virtue
and live an orgy, dare to spout something about morals.
Vltra Sauromatas fugere hinc libet et glacialem
Oceanum, quotiens aliquid de moribus audent
qui Curios simulant et Bacchanalia uiuunt
(2.1-3)

170 lines. The narrator claims to want to flee civilization (i.e. Roma) to beyond the world’s end when confronted by moral hypocrisy. Although the broad theme of this poem is the process of gender inversion, it would be an error to take is as simple invective against pathic men. Juvenal is concerned with gender deviance

  • lines 2.1-35 – Pathic men that pretend to be moral exemplars are much worse than those who are open about their proclivities. The pot should not call the kettle black.
  • lines 2.36-65 – When criticized for her morals, Laronia turns on one of these hypocrites and mocks their open effeminacy.
  • lines 2.65-81 – Criticism of the effeminate dress of Creticus as he practices law. This moral plague (contagio) spreads like disease passes through an entire herd of livestock or a bunch of grapes.
  • lines 2.82-116 – Effeminate dress is the gateway to complete gender inversion.
  • lines 2.117-148 – A noble man, Gracchus, gets married to another man – but such brides are infertile no matter what drugs they try or how much they are whipped in the Lupercalia.
  • lines 2.149-170 – The ghosts of great Romans of the past would feel themselves contaminated when such Romans descend to the underworld.

Satire III: There is no Room in Roma for a Roman

What could I do in Roma? I don’t know how to lie;
If a book is bad, I am unable to praise it and ask for one;
I don’t understand the motions of the stars – I am neither willing
nor able to predict the death of someone’s father; I never inspected the guts
of frogs; other men know all about ferrying what the adulterers send to brides;
nobody is going to be a thief with me as his accomplice,
and that right there is why I’m going in no governor’s entourage
– I’m like a cripple, a useless body with a dead right hand.
quid Romae faciam? mentiri nescio; librum,
si malus est, nequeo laudare et poscere; motus
astrorum ignoro; funus promittere patris
nec uolo nec possum; ranarum uiscera numquam
inspexi; ferre ad nuptam quae mittit adulter,
quae mandat, norunt alii; me nemo ministro
fur erit, atque ideo nulli comes exeo tamquam
mancus et extinctae corpus non utile dextrae.
(3.41-48)

322 lines. In the place where Numa Pompilius (the legendary second king of Rome) received a nymph’s advice on creating Roman law, the narrator has a final conversation with his Roman friend Umbricius, who is emigrating to Cumae. Umbricius claims that slick and immoral foreigners have shut a real Roman out of all opportunity to prosper. Only the first 20 lines are in the voice of the narrator; the remainder of the poem is cast as the words of Umbricius.

In 1738, Samuel Johnson was inspired by this text to write his "London: A Poem in Imitation of the Third Satire of Juvenal". The archetypal question of whether the urban life of hectic ambition is to be preferred to the pastoral fantasy seemingly offered by retreat to the country in posed by the narrator, as in the following passage of parody:

As you love your hoe, live as the steward of your garden,
whence you may lay out a feast for one hundred Pythagoreans.
It is meaningful – in whatever place, in whatever backwater -
to have made oneself the master of a single lizard.
uiue bidentis amans et culti uilicus horti
unde epulum possis centum dare Pythagoreis.
est aliquid, quocumque loco, quocumque recessu,
unius sese dominum fecisse lacertae.
(3.228-31)

  • lines 3.1-20 – The narrator’s old friend Umbricius is about to depart Roma for Cumae. The narrator says he would himself prefer Prochyta to the Suburra, and he describes the ancient shrine of Egeria being put up for rent to Jews and polluted by marble.
  • lines 3.21-57 – Umbricius: There is no opportunity in Roma for an honest man.
  • lines 3.58-125 – Umbricius: The Greeks and their ways are flowing like pollution into Roma, and they are so adept at lying flattery that they are achieving more social advancement that real Romans.
  • lines 3.126-163 – Umbricius: The dregs of society so long as they are wealthy lord it over real Romans; there is no hope for an honest man in court if he is poor.
  • lines 3.164-189 – Umbricius: Virtue and lack of pretension is only to be found outside the City; at Roma everything is expensive, pretentious, and bought on credit.
  • lines 3.190-231 – Umbricius contrasts the perils and degradation of living in Roma with the easy and cheap life outside the City.
  • lines 3.232-267 – Umbricius: The streets of Roma are annoying and dangerous if you are not rich enough to ride in a litter.
  • lines 3.268-314 – Umbricius: Travel by night in Roma is fraught with danger from falling tiles, thugs, and robbers.
  • lines 3.315-322 – Umbricius takes his leave of the narrator, and promises to visit him in his native Aquinum.

Satire IV: The Emperor’s Fish

Back when the last Flavian was ripping up a half-dead
world – and Roma slaved for a bald Nero –
in sight of the shrine of Venus, which Doric Ancona upholds,
the marvelous expanse of an Adriatic turbot appeared,
and filled the nets; ...
cum iam semianimum laceraret Flauius orbem
ultimus et caluo seruiret Roma Neroni,
incidit Hadriaci spatium admirabile rhombi
ante domum Veneris, quam Dorica sustinet Ancon,
impleuitque sinus; ...
(4.37-41)

154 lines. The narrator makes the emperor Domitian and his court the objects of his ridicule in this mock-epic tale of a fish so prodigious that it was fit for the emperor alone. The council of state is called to deal with the crisis of how to cook it. The main themes of this poem are the corruption and incompetence of sycophantic courtiers and the inability or unwillingness to speak truth to power.

Jean-Jacques Rousseau's motto, vitam impendere vero (to pay his life for the truth) is taken from the passage below, a description of the qualifications of an imperial courtier in the reign of Domitian:

... nor was he the sort of citizen who was able to offer
up the free words of his heart and stake his life on the truth.
That is how he saw so many winters and indeed his eightieth
summer, and by these arms he was safe even in that audience hall.
... nec ciuis erat qui libera posset
uerba animi proferre et uitam inpendere uero.
sic multas hiemes atque octogensima uidit
solstitia, his armis illa quoque tutus in aula.
(4.90-93)

  • lines 4.1-10 – Criticism of the courtier Crispinus.
  • lines 4.11-33 – Crispinus bought a mullet for six thousand sesterces - more expensive than the fisherman that caught him.
  • lines 4.34-56 – Mock-epic narrative of the crisis of state caused by a giant turbot begins with the catch.
  • lines 4.56-72 – The fisherman rushes to get the fish to the emperor.
  • lines 4.72-93 – Crispinus and other councilors begin to arrive.
  • lines 4.94-143 – More councilors arrive and one prophecies that the fish is an omen of a future victory. The question of what to do with it is raised, and Montanus advises that a vessel be manufactured at once suitable for its size.
  • lines 4.144-154 – The council break up, and the narrator voices his wish that all the actions of Domitian had been so meaningless.

Satire V: Patronizing Patronage

An eel awaits you - close relative of a long snake -
or maybe even a Tiber-fish spotted with gray blotches,
a home-born slave of the Embankment, fat from the gushing Cloaca Maxima
and accustomed to venture into the covered sewer beneath the center of the Suburra.
uos anguilla manet longae cognata colubrae
aut glaucis sparsus maculis Tiberinus et ipse
uernula riparum, pinguis torrente cloaca
et solitus mediae cryptam penetrare Suburae.
(5.103-106)

173 lines. The narrative frame of this poem is a dinner party where many potential dysfunctions in the ideal of the patron-client relationship are put on display. Rather than being a performance of faux-equality, the patron (Virro as in 9.35) emphasizes the superiority of himself and his peers (amici) over his clients (viles amici) by offering differing qualities of food and drink to each. Juvenal concludes with the observation that the clients who put up with this treatment deserve it.

  • lines 5.1-11 – Begging is better than being treated disrespectfully at a patron's dinner.
  • lines 5.12-23 – An invitation to dinner is a social exchange for your services as a client.
  • lines 5.24-48 – Different wines and goblets for different social ranks.
  • lines 5.49-106 – Different water is served by different grades of slaves - and different breads served by arrogant slaves. The patron gets a lobster, and you get a crayfish; he gets a Corsican mullet, and you get a sewer-fish.
  • lines 5.107-113 – Seneca and others were known for their generosity. The elite should dine as equals with their friends - clients.
  • lines 5.114-124 – The patron gets a goose liver and boar meat, but you get to watch the meat carver perform.
  • lines 5.125-155 – If you had a fortune the patron would respect you; it is the cash that he really respects. Different mushrooms and apples.
  • lines 5.156-173 – Clients who will not resist this kind of treatment deserve it and worse.

Book II

Satire VI: Death is Better than Marriage

... I am aware
of whatever counsels you old friends warn,
i.e. "throw the bolt and lock her in.” But who is going to guard the
guards themselves, who now keep silent the lapses of the loose
girl - paid off in the same coin? The common crime is keeps its silence.
A prudent wife looks ahead and starts with them.
... noui
consilia et ueteres quaecumque monetis amici,
'pone seram, cohibe'. sed quis custodiet ipsos
custodes, qui nunc lasciuae furta puellae
hac mercede silent? crimen commune tacetur.
prospicit hoc prudens et a illis incipit uxor.
(6.O29-34)

c. 695 lines. For the discussion and synopsis, see Satire VI.

Book III

Satire VII: Fortuna (or the Emperor) is the Best Patron

If the goddess Fortuna wants, from a mere teacher you will become consul,
if the same want, a teacher will be created from a consul.
For what was Ventidius? What was Tullius? Anything really
other than a comet and the marvelous power of hidden fate?
Kingdoms will be given to slaves, and a triumph to captives.
A really fortunate man, however, is even more rare than a white crow.
si Fortuna uolet, fies de rhetore consul;
si uolet haec eadem, fiet de consule rhetor.
Ventidius quid enim? quid Tullius? anne aliud quam
sidus et occulti miranda potentia fati?
seruis regna dabunt, captiuis fata triumphum.
felix ille tamen coruo quoque rarior albo.
(7.197-202)

243 lines. Juvenal returns to his theme of distorted economic values among the Roman elite – in this instance centered on their unwillingness to provide appropriate support for poets, lawyers, and teachers. It is the capricious whims of fate that determine the variables of a human life.

  • lines 7.1-21 – The emperor is the only remaining patron of letters.
  • lines 7.22-35 – Other patrons have learned to offer their admiration only.
  • lines 7.36-52 – The urge to write is an addictive disease.
  • lines 7.53-97 – Money and leisure are required to be a really great poet (vatis); hunger and discomfort would have hobbled even Virgil.
  • lines 7.98-105 – Historians (scriptores historiarum) do not have it any better.
  • lines 7.106-149 – Lawyers (causidici) get only as much respect as the quality of their dress can buy.
  • lines 7.150-177 – No one is willing to pay teachers of rhetoric (magistri) appropriately.
  • lines 7.178-214 – Rich men restrain only their spending on a teacher of rhetoric (rhetor) for their sons. Quintilian was rich, he was the lucky exception to the rule.
  • lines 7.215-243 – The qualifications and efforts required of a teacher (grammaticus) are totally out of proportion to their pay.

Satire VIII: True Nobility

Although your whole atria display ancient wax portraits on
every side, excellence is the one and only nobility.
Go on and be a Paulus or Cossus or Drusus in your morals -
esteem this more important than the images of your ancestors.
tota licet ueteres exornent undique cerae
atria, nobilitas sola est atque unica virtus.
Paulus uel Cossus uel Drusus moribus esto,
hos ante effigies maiorum pone tuorum.
(8.19-22)

275 lines. The narrator takes issue with the idea that pedigree ought to be taken as evidence of a person’s worth.

  • lines 8.1-38 – What is the value of a pedigree, if you are inferior to your ancestors?
  • lines 8.39-55 – Many nobles have done nothing to makes themselves noble.
  • lines 8.56-70 – Racehorses are valued for their speed not their ancestors; if they are slow they will end up pulling a cart.
  • lines 8.71-86 – It is vile to rely on the reputations of others; one should be noble even in the face of danger.
  • lines 8.87-126 – Govern your province honestly. When everything else is stolen from those you rule, weapons and desperation remain.
  • lines 8.127-162 – If you live wickedly, your good ancestors are a reproach to you.
  • lines 8.163-182 – Bad behavior should be ceased in youth. The nobles make excuses for behavior that would not be tolerated in slaves.
  • lines 8.183-210 – When they bankrupt themselves, the nobles may sink to the level of the stage or the arena.
  • lines 8.211-230 – The emperor Nero utterly debased himself in these ways.
  • lines 8.231-275 – Many people without famous ancestors have served Roma with great distinction. Indeed, everyone is descended from peasants or worse if you go back far enough.

Satire IX: Flattering your Patron is Hard Work

But, while you downplay some services and lie about others I've done,
what value do you put on the fact that - if I had not been handed over
as your dedicated client - your wife would still be a virgin.
uerum, ut dissimules, ut mittas cetera, quanto
metiris pretio quod, ni tibi deditus essem
deuotusque cliens, uxor tua uirgo maneret?
(9.70-72)

150 lines. This satire is in the form of a dialogue between the narrator and Naevolus – the disgruntled client of a pathic patron.

  • lines 9.1-26 – Narrator: Why do you look so haggard Naevolus?
  • lines 9.27-46 – Naevolus: The life of serving the needs of pathic rich men is not paying off.
  • lines 9.46-47 – Nar: Buy you used to think you were really sexy to men.
  • lines 9.48-69 – Nae: Rich pathics are not willing to spend on their sickness, but I have bills to pay.
  • lines 9.70-90 – Nae: I saved his marriage by doing his job for him with a wife that was about to get a divorce.
  • lines 9.90-91 – Nar: You are justified in complaining Naevius. What did he say?
  • lines 9.92-101 – Nae: He is looking for another two-legged donkey, but don’t repeat any of this, he might try to kill me.
  • lines 9.102-123 – Nar: Rich men have no secrets.
  • lines 9.124-129 – Nae: But what should I do now; youth is fleeting.
  • lines 9.130-134 – Nar: You will never lack a pathic patron, don’t worry.
  • lines 9.134-150 – Nae: But I want so little. Fortuna must have her ears plugged when I pray.

Book IV

Satire X: Wrong Desire is the Source of Suffering

It is to be prayed that the mind be sound in a sound body.
Ask for a brave soul that lacks the fear of death,
which places the length of life last among nature’s blessings,
which is able to bear whatever kind of sufferings,
does not know anger, lusts for nothing and believes
the hardships and savage labors of Hercules better than
the satisfactions, feasts, and feather bed of an Eastern king.
I will reveal what you are able to give yourself;
For certain, the one footpath of a tranquil life lies through virtue.
orandum est ut sit mens sana in corpore sano.
fortem posce animum mortis terrore carentem,
qui spatium uitae extremum inter munera ponat
naturae, qui ferre queat quoscumque labores,
nesciat irasci, cupiat nihil et potiores
Herculis aerumnas credat saeuosque labores
et uenere et cenis et pluma Sardanapalli.
monstro quod ipse tibi possis dare; semita certe
tranquillae per uirtutem patet unica uitae.
(10.356-64)

366 lines. The theme of this poem encompasses the myriad objects of prayer unwisely sought from the gods: wealth, power, beauty, children, long life, etcetera. The narrator argues that each of these is a false Good; each desired thing is shown to be not good in itself, but only good so long as other factors do not intervene. This satire is the source of the well-known phrase "mens sana in corpore sano" (a healthy mind in a healthy body), which appears in the passage above. It is also the source of the phrase "panem et circenses" (bread and circuses) - the only remaining cares of a Roman populace which has given up its birthright of political freedom (10.81).

  • lines 10.1-27—Few know what is really Good. Wealth often destroys.
  • lines 10.28-55—One can either cry like Heraclitus or laugh like Democritus at the state of things. But what should men pray for?
  • lines 10.56-89—It is all too easy to fall from power - like Sejanus. The mob follows Fortuna and cares for nothing but bread and circuses.
  • lines 10.90-113—By seeking ever more honors and power, Sejanus just made his eventual fall that much more terrible.
  • lines 10.114-132—Being a great orator like Demosthenes or Cicero may get one killed.
  • lines 10.133-146—Lust for military glory has ruined countries, and time will destroy even the graves of famous generals.
  • lines 10.147-167—What did Hannibal ultimately accomplish? He dies of poison in exile.
  • lines 10.168-187—The world was not big enough for Alexander the Great, but a coffin was. Xerxes I crawled back to Persia after his misadventure in Greece.
  • lines 10.188-209—Long life just means ugliness, helplessness, impotence, and the loss of all pleasure.
  • lines 10.209-239—Old people are deaf and full of diseases. Dementia is the worst affliction of all.
  • lines 10.240-272—Old people just live to see the funerals of their children and loved ones, like Nestor or Priam.
  • lines 10.273-288—Many men would have been thought fortunate if they had died before a late disaster overtook them: e.g. Croesus, Marius, and Pompey.
  • lines 10.289-309—Beauty is inimical to a person’s virtue. Even if they remain untouched by corruption, it makes them objects of lust for perverts.
  • lines 10.310-345—Beautiful men tend to become noted adulterers, risking their lives. Even if they are unwilling like Hippolytus, the wrath of scorned women may destroy them.
  • lines 10.346-366—Is there nothing to pray for then? Trust the gods to choose what is best; they love humans more than we do ourselves, but if you must pray for something, see the translation above.

Satire XI: Dinner and a Moral

Our humble home does not take up such trifles. Another man will hear
the clacks of castanets along with words that a naked slave standing
for sale in a smelly brothel would refrain from; another man will enjoy
obscene voices and every art of lust, a man
who wets his inlaid floor of Lacedaemonian marbles with spit-out wine
...
Our dinner party today will provide other amusements.
The author of the Iliad will sing, and the poems of Vergil
that make the supremacy of Homer doubtful.
What does it matter by what voice such verses are read?
non capit has nugas humilis domus. audiat ille
testarum crepitus cum uerbis, nudum olido stans
fornice mancipium quibus abstinet, ille fruatur
uocibus obscenis omnique libidinis arte,
qui Lacedaemonium pytismate lubricat orbem;
...
nostra dabunt alios hodie conuiuia ludos:
conditor Iliados cantabitur atque Maronis
altisoni dubiam facientia carmina palmam.
quid refert, tales uersus qua uoce legantur?
(11.171-182)

208 lines. The main themes of this poem are self-awareness and moderation. The poem explicitly mentions one apothegm γνῶθι σεαυτόν (know thyself) from the temple of Apollo at Delphi, while its theme calls to mind another μηδέν ἄγαν (nothing in excess). The subject, in this instance, is the role of food and the cena (formal dinner) in Roman society. The narrator contrasts the ruinous spending habits of gourmands with the moderation of a simple meal of home-grown foods in the manner of the mythical ancient Romans.

  • lines 11.1-55 – People that refuse to limit their gourmet habits, even in the face of having to do so on credit, soon endure poverty and consequently inferior food. The advice of Apollo to know thyself should be heeded - not just for ambitions and endeavors, but also for what should be spent on a fish.
  • lines 11.56-89 – The narrator invites a Persicus to come to his house for dinner to see whether his actions match his rhetoric. The dinner will include only home-grown foods from the narrator’s Tiburtine land. Long ago, the noble Curius cooked things for himself that a slave on a chain-gang would reject now.
  • lines 11.90-119 – The ancient Romans did not care for luxuries and Greek art. A Jupiter made of terracotta saved the city from the Gauls.
  • lines 11.120-135 – Now rich people get no enjoyment from delicacies unless they eat from tables decorated with ivory. The narrator claims that his food is unharmed, despite owning no ivory.
  • lines 11.136-161 – The narrator promises no professional meat carver or exotic slave servers, nor are his slave boys destined for emasculation and use as sexual toys.
  • lines 11.162-182 – In place of a pornographic Spanish dance show, there will be poetry.
  • lines 11.183-208 – Rather than endure the annoyance of all Roma at the Circus Maximus during the Megalensian Games, the narrator invites his addressee to shake off his cares and come to a simple dinner.

Satire XII: True Friendship

Lest these actions seem suspicious to you Corvinus, this Catullus
for whose return I am placing so much on these altars, has
three little heirs. It would be fun to wait for someone to
pay out a sick (and in fact closing its eyes) hen for a friend
so “sterile;” truly, this is too much expense, and
no quail ever died for a father of children. If rich and childless
Gallitta and Pacius begin to feel a chill, the entire portico
is clothed with vows posted-up in the prescribed way
there are those who would promise a one-hundred-cow sacrifice
only because there are no elephants for sale here, ...
neu suspecta tibi sint haec, Coruine, Catullus,
pro cuius reditu tot pono altaria, paruos
tres habet heredes. libet expectare quis aegram
et claudentem oculos gallinam inpendat amico
tam sterili; uerum haec nimia est inpensa, coturnix
nulla umquam pro patre cadet. sentire calorem
si coepit locuples Gallitta et Pacius orbi,
legitime fixis uestitur tota libellis
porticus, existunt qui promittant hecatomben,
quatenus hic non sunt nec uenales elephanti,
(12.93-102)

130 lines. The narrator describes to his addressee Corvinus the sacrificial vows that he has made for the salvation of his friend Catullus from shipwreck. These vows are to the primary Roman gods - Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva (the Capitoline Triad)- but other shipwrecked sailors are said to make offerings to Isis. In the passage quoted above, the narrator asserts that his sacrifices are not to curry favor or gain an inheritance, common reasons for making vows among those who would not hesitate to sacrifice their slaves or even children if it would bring them an inheritance.

  • lines 12.1-29 – Description of the sacrificial preparations.
  • lines 12.30-51 – Description of a storm: this friend had been willing to cast overboard items of great value to save his own life – who else would prefer his life to his treasures.
  • lines 12.52-82 – They had to cut the mast due to the ferocity of the storm, but then the weather calmed and they limped their ship into the port at Ostia.
  • lines 12.83-92 – The narrator orders that the altar and sacrifice be made ready. He says that he will propitiate his Lares (family gods) as well.
  • lines 12.93-130 – Catullus has heirs, so the narrator is acting as a friend not a legacy-hunter (captator). Legacy hunters would sacrifice one hundred cattle, elephants, slaves, or even their own child if it secured an inheritance for them.

Book V (incomplete)

Satire XIII: Don’t Obsess over Liars and Crooks

What you suffer: they’re the misfortunes of many, at this point well-known,
and indeed trite, and drawn from the middle of Fortuna’s deck.
Let’s lay off the excessive groaning. Pain should not be
sharper than what’s called for, nor greater than the damage.
You are hardly able to endure the least tiny particle of ills
however slight – burning in your frothing guts, because a friend
did not return to you a things deposited with him under oath?
Does a man who has already left sixty years behind his back
– a man born when Fonteius was consul - get stupefied by events like these?
Or have you advanced nothing to the better from so much experience.
quae pateris: casus multis hic cognitus ac iam
''tritus et e medio fortunae ductus aceruo.'
ponamus nimios gemitus. flagrantior aequo
non debet dolor esse uiri nec uolnere maior.
tu quamuis leuium minimam exiguamque malorum
particulam uix ferre potes spumantibus ardens
uisceribus, sacrum tibi quod non reddat amicus
depositum? stupet haec qui iam post terga reliquit
sexaginta annos Fonteio consule natus?
an nihil in melius tot rerum proficis usu?
(13.9-18)

249 lines. This poem is a dissuasion from excessive rage and the desire for revenge when one is defrauded. The narrator recommends a philosophical moderation and the perspective that comes from realizing that there are many things worse than financial loss.

  • lines 13.1-18 – Guilt is its own punishment. One should not overreact to ill-use.
  • lines 13.19-70 – Philosophy and life-experience offer a defense against Fortuna. There are hardly as many good people as the gates of Egyptian Thebes (100) or even as the mouths of the Nile (9). The Golden Age was infinitely superior to the present age, an age so corrupt there is not even an appropriate metal to name it.
  • lines 13.71-85 – Perjurers will swear on the arms of all the gods to deny their debts.
  • lines 13.86-119 – Some believe that everything is a product of chance, and so do not fear to perjure themselves on the altars of the gods. Others rationalize that the wrath of the gods, though great, is very slow in coming.
  • lines 13.120-134 – It takes no philosopher to realize that there are many worse wrongs than being defrauded. A financial loss is mourned more than a death, and it is mourned with real tears.
  • lines 13.135-173 – It is silly to be surprised by the number and magnitude of the crimes put to trial at Roma, as silly as to be surprised by a German having blue eyes.
  • lines 13.174-209 – Even execution of a criminal would not undo their crime; only the uneducated think that revenge is a Good. That is not what the philosophers Chrysippos, Thales, or Socrates would say. The narrator makes an extended reference to the story of a corrupt Spartan’s consultation of the Oracle of Apollo at Delphi from Herodotus (6.86). The mere intention to do evil is guilt.
  • lines 13.210-249 – Consciousness of one’s guilt is its own punishment, with anxiety and fear of divine retribution. The natura (nature) of criminals is fixa (stuck) and mutari nescia (unable to be changed), and it rushes back to ways they have admitted are wrong (239-40). Thus, criminals tend to repeat their crimes, and eventually end up facing execution or exile.

Satire XIV: Avarice is not a Family Value

Although youths imitate the other vices of their own free will,
they are commanded to practice only avarice unwillingly.
For this vice deceives with the appearance and shape of a virtue,
since it has a grim bearing and a severe surface and exterior,
the miser is lauded as if he were frugal without hesitation -
as if he were a sparing man, and a sure guardian of his own possessions,
better than if the Serpent of the Hesperides or the one
from the Black Sea guarded those same fortunes.
sponte tamen iuuenes imitantur cetera, solam
inuiti quoque auaritiam exercere iubentur.
fallit enim uitium specie uirtutis et umbra,
cum sit triste habitu uultuque et ueste seuerum,
nec dubie tamquam frugi laudetur auarus,
tamquam parcus homo et rerum tutela suarum
certa magis quam si fortunas seruet easdem
Hesperidum serpens aut Ponticus. ...
(14.107-14)

331 lines. The narrator stresses that children most readily learn all forms of vice from their parents. Avarice must actually be taught since it runs counter to nature. This vice is particularly pernicious, since it has the appearance of a virtue and is the source of a myriad of crimes and cruelties.

  • lines 14.1-37 – The greatest danger to the morals of children comes from the vices of their parents.
  • lines 14.38-58 – People should restrain themselves from vice for the sake of their children. It is unjust for a father to criticize and punish a son who takes after himself.
  • lines 14.59-85 – People are more concerned to present a clean atrium to outsiders than to keep their house free of vice for their children. The tastes acquired in childhood persist into adulthood.
  • lines 14.86-95 – Caetronius squandered much of his wealth by building many fine houses; his son squandered the rest by doing the same.
  • lines 14.96-106 – People learn to be Jewish from their parents.
  • lines 14.107-134 – Avarice has the appearance of a virtue, but it leads to cruel deprivation of one’s slaves and one’s own self.
  • lines 14.135-188 – It is madness to live like an indigent just to die rich. There is no amount of money or land that will satisfy greed, but ancient Romans veterans of the Punic wars or of the war against Pyrrhus were content with only two iugera (acres) of land in return for all their wounds. Impatient greed leads to crime.
  • lines 14.189-209 – Become a lawyer, join the army, or become a merchant. Profit smells good, wherever it’s from. Nobody inquires into where you got it, but you have to have it.
  • lines 14.210-255 – The greedy son will surpass his father as much as Achilles did Peleus. Instilling avarice is the same as teaching a child every form of crime. A son whom you have taught to have no mercy will have no mercy of you either.
  • lines 14.256-283 – Those who take risks to increase their fortunes are like tightrope walkers. Fleets sail wherever there is hope of profit.
  • lines 14.284-302 – Avaricious men are willing to risk their lives and fortunes just to have a few more pieces of silver with someone’s face and inscription on them.
  • lines 14.303-316 – The anxiety of protecting wealth and possessions is a misery. Alexander the Great realized that the cynic Diogenes was happier than himself while living in his pottery home, since Alexander’s anxieties and dangers matched his ambitions, while Diogenes was content with what he had and could easily replace.
  • lines 14.316-331 – How much is enough then? As much as Epicurus or Socrates was content to possess is best, or - in the Roman manner - a fortune equal to the equestrian order. If twice or three times that does not suffice, then not even the wealth of Croesus or of Persia will suffice.

Satire XV: People without Compassion are Worse than Animals

But these days there is greater concord among snakes.
A savage beast spares another with similar spots.
When did a stronger lion rip the life from another lion?
In what forest did a wild boar perish under the tusks of larger boar?
sed iam serpentum maior concordia. parcit
cognatis maculis similis fera. quando leoni
fortior eripuit uitam leo? quo nemore umquam
expirauit aper maioris dentibus apri
(15.159-162)

174 lines. The narrator discusses the centrality of compassion for other people to the preservation of civilization. While severe circumstances have at times called for desperate measures to preserve life, even the most savage tribes have refrained from cannibalism. We were given minds to allow us to live together in mutual assistance and security. Without limits on rage against our enemies, we are worse than animals.

  • lines 15.1-26 – In Egypt they worship bizarre animal-headed gods, but not the familiar Roman ones. Similarly, they wont eat normal things, but do practice cannibalism. Ulysses must have been though a liar for his tale of the Laestrygonians or the Cyclopes.
  • lines 15.27-32 – Recently in upper Egypt, an entire people was guilty of this crime.
  • lines 15.33-92 – Two neighboring cities hated each other. One attacked while the other held a feast. Fists gave way to stones and then to arrows; as one side fled, one man slipped and was caught. He was ripped to pieces and eaten raw.
  • lines 15.93-131 – The Vascones, however, were blameless, because they were compelled to cannibalism by the siege of Pompey the Great. Even at the altar of Artemis in Taurus, humans are only sacrificed, not eaten.
  • lines 15.131-158 – Compassion is what separates humans from animals. The creator gave humans mind (animus) as well as life (anima), so that people could live together in a civil society.

Satire XVI: Soldiers are above the Law

Let’s deal with the common benefits first off,
among which by no means the least is that no civilian would dare
to strike you – and what’s more – if he gets struck, he denies it
and isn’t willing to show his knocked-out teeth to the judge either.
commoda tractemus primum communia, quorum
haut minimum illud erit, ne te pulsare togatus
audeat, immo, etsi pulsetur, dissimulet nec
audeat excussos praetori ostendere dentes
(16.7-10)<

60 lines preserved. The primary theme of the preserved lines is the advantages of soldiers over mere citizens.

  • lines 16.1-6 – The narrator wishes that he could join the legions, since soldiers have many advantages over civilians.
  • lines 16.7-34 – Soldiers are immune to justice since they have to be tried in the camp among other soldiers, where a plaintiff will get no help prosecuting them, and may get a beating in addition for their trouble.
  • lines 16.35-50 – Soldiers do not have to wait for legal action like civilians
  • lines 16.51-60 – Only soldiers have the right to make a will while their father lives – leading to an inversion of power with the soldier son being above his father.

The Significance of the Satires

While Juvenal's mode of satire has been noted from antiquity for its wrathful scorn towards all representatives of social deviance, scholars such as W.S. Anderson and later S.M. Braund have suggested that this apparent anger is merely a rhetorical persona (mask) taken up by the author to critique the unbalanced anger aroused by the sort of elitism, sexism, and xenophobia that the Satires seem replete with at first glance. The aphoristic, absolutist character of the text lends itself all too easily to indiscriminate application of critiques originally directed at literary exemplars of particular vices. As has been noted by the literary theorist Stanley Fish, the reading of a text is as much a product of the reader’s beliefs and prejudices as of those contained within the text.

It would be an equally grave error to read the Satires as a literal account of normal Roman life and thought in the late 1st and early 2nd centuries CE, just as it would be an error to give credence to every slander recorded in Tacitus or Suetonius against the members of prior imperial dynasties. Themes similar to those of the Satires are present in authors spanning the period of the late Roman Republic and early Empire ranging from Cicero and Catullus to Martial and Tacitus; Compare, for example, Horace's "Satires." Similarly, the stylistics of Juvenal’s text fall within the range of post-Augustan literature as represented by Persius, Statius, and Petronius. Finally, it is necessary to realize that the conceptual system present within the text is most representative of only a portion of the Roman population; the Satires do not speak clearly for the concerns of women, immigrants, slaves, children, or even men who deviated from the elite, educated audience intended by the author. With these caveats held in mind, it is possible to approach the Satires as a crucial source for the culture of early Imperial Rome. In addition to a wealth of incidental information on everything from diet to décor, the Satires of Juvenal reveal what is most essential to a civilization: the issues at the core of the Roman identity.

Notes

References

  • Anderson, William S.. 1982. Essays on Roman Satire. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • Adams, J. N.. 1982. The Latin Sexual Vocabulary. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
  • Braund, Susanna M.. 1988. Beyond Anger: A Study of Juvenal’s Third Book of Satires. Cambridge: Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge.
  • Braund, Susanna. 1996. Juvenal Satires Book I. Cambridge: Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge.
  • Braund, Susanna. 1996. The Roman Satirists and their Masks. London: Bristol Classical Press.
  • Courtney, E.. 1980. A Commentary of the Satires of Juvenal. London: Athlone Press.
  • Edwards, Catherine. 1993. The Politics of Immorality in Ancient Rome. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Edwards, Catherine. 1996. Writing Rome: Textual Approached to the City. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Freudenburg, Kirk. 1993. The Walking Muse: Horace on the Theory of Satire. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • Gleason, Maud. W. 1995. Making Men: Sophists and Self-Presentation in Ancient Rome. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • Gowers, Emily. 1993. The Loaded Table: Representations of Food in Roman Literature. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Highet, Gilbert. 1961. Juvenal the Satirist. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Hutchinson, G. O.. 1993. Latin Literature from Seneca to Juvenal. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Juvenal. 1982. The Sixteen Satires. Trans. Peter Green. London: Penguin Books.
  • Juvenal. 1992. The Satires. Trans. Niall Rudd. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Juvenal. 1992. Persi et Juvenalis Saturae. ed. W. V. Clausen. London: Oxford University Press.
  • The Oxford Classical Dictionary. 1996. 3rd ed. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Richlin, Amy. 1992. The Garden of Priapus. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Rudd, Niall. 1982. Themes in Roman Satire. Los Angeles: University of California Press.
  • Syme, Ronald. 1939. The Roman Revolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Walters, Jonathan. 1997. Invading the Roman Body: Manliness and Impenetrability in Roman Thought. in J. Hallet and M. Skinner, eds., Roman Sexualities, Princeton: Princeton University Press.

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