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stanislas i

List of Polish monarchs

Poland, or at least its nucleus, was ruled at various times either by książęta (Dukes) (ca. 10th-14th century) or by Kings (ca. 11th-18th century). The longest-reigning dynasties were the Piasts (ca. 960 – 1370) and Jagiellons (1386–1572). Intervening and subsequent monarchs were often rulers of foreign countries or princes recruited from foreign dynasties. During the latter period a tradition of free election of monarchs made it a uniquely electable position in Europe (16th-18th centuries). Polish independence ended with the Third Partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (1795) and was restored at the end of World War I (1918) on a republican basis.

Monarchs of Poland

Ruler Dynasty Reign Notes
Siemowit Piast Duke 9th century legendary; son of Piast
Lestko Piast Duke 9th-10th century legendary; son of Siemowit
Siemomysł Piast Duke 10th century legendary
Mieszko I Piast Duke 960?-992 son of Siemomysł
first Christian monarch
Bolesław I the Brave
(Boleslas I)
Piast Duke 992-1025
King 1025
son of Mieszko
first to be crowned King
Mieszko II Lambert Piast King 1025-1031 son of Boleslas I
Bezprym Piast Duke 1031-1032 son of Boleslas I
Otton Piast Duke 1032 son of Boleslas I
Thiedric Piast Duke 1032 Mieszko I's grandson
Mieszko II Lambert Piast Duke 1032-1034 restored
Kazimierz I the Restorer
(Casimir I)
Piast Duke 1039-1058 son of Mieszko II
Bolesław II the Bold
(Boleslas II)
Piast Duke 1058-1076
King 1076-1079
son of Casimir I
Władysław I Herman
(Ladislas I)
Piast Duke 1079-1102 son of Casimir I
Zbigniew Piast Duke 1102-1107 son of Ladislas I;
first jointly with Boleslas III
Bolesław III Wrymouth
(Boleslas III)
Piast Duke 1102-1138 son of Ladislas I
first jointly with Zbigniew
introduced senioral principle
Władysław II the Exile
(Ladislas II)
Piast High Duke 1138-1146 son of Boleslas III
also Duke of Silesia
exiled by his brothers
Bolesław IV the Curly
(Boleslas IV)
Piast High Duke 1146-1177 son of Boleslas III
also Duke of Masovia
Mieszko III the Old Piast High Duke 1173-1177 son of Boleslas III
also Duke of Greater Poland
Kazimierz II the Just
(Casimir II)
Piast High Duke 1177-1190 son of Boleslas III; also Duke
of Wiślica and Sandomierz
Mieszko III the Old Piast High Duke 1190 restored
Kazimierz II the Just
(Casimir II)
Piast High Duke 1190-1194 restored
Leszek I the White Piast High Duke 1194-1198 also Duke of Sandomierz
Mieszko III the Old Piast High Duke 1198-1199 restored
Leszek I the White Piast High Duke 1199-1202 restored
Mieszko III the Old Piast High Duke 1202 restored
Władysław III Spindleshanks
(Ladislas III)
Piast High Duke 1202-1206 son of Mieszko III
also Duke of Greater Poland
Leszek I the White Piast High Duke 1206-1210 restored
Mieszko I Tanglefoot Piast High Duke 1210-1211 son of Ladislas II;
also Duke of Wrocław
Leszek I the White Piast High Duke 1211-1227 restored; assassinated
Władysław III Spindleshanks
(Ladislas III)
Piast High Duke 1227-1229 restored
Konrad I of Masovia Piast High Duke 1229-1232 son of son of Casimir II
also Duke of Masovia
Henryk I the Bearded
(Henry I)
Piast High Duke 1232-1238 also Duke of Silesia
Henryk II the Pious
(Henry II)
Piast High Duke 1238-1241 son of Henry I; also Duke of
Wroclaw and Greater Poland;
fell at Legnica
Konrad I of Masovia Piast High Duke 1241-1243 also Duke of Masovia
Bolesław V the Chaste
(Boleslas V)
Piast High Duke 1243-1279 son of Leszek the White
Leszek II the Black Piast High Duke 1279-1288
Henryk IV Probus
(Henry IV)
Piast High Duke 1288-1290 also Duke of Lower Silesia
Przemysł II
(Premyslas II)
Piast High Duke 1290-1295
King 1295-1296
also Duke of Poznań, Greater
Poland and Pomerania
Václav II
(Wenceslas II)
Přemyslid High Duke 1296-1300
King 1300-1305
Duke of Lesser Poland
since 1291
Václav III
(Wenceslas III)
Přemyslid King 1305-1306 son of Wenceslaus III
uncrowned; assassinated
Władysław I the Elbow-high
(Ladislas I/IV)
Piast High Duke 1306-1320
King 1320-1333
Kazimierz III The Great
(Casimir III)
Piast King 1333-1370 son of Władysław I
Ludwik
(Louis)
Anjou King 1370-1382 nephew of Casimir III
Jadwiga
(Hedwig)
Anjou King 1382-1399 daughter of Louis I
reigned jointly with her husband
Ladislas II since 1386

Kings of Poland and Grand Dukes of Lithuania

Jagiellon Dynasty

Ruler Dynasty Reign Notes
Władysław II Jagiełło
(Ladislas II)
Jagiellon 1386-1434 reigned jointly with his wife Jadwiga until 1399
Władysław III
(Ladislas III)
Jagiellon 1434-1444 Also king of Hungary fell at Varna, therefore surnamed "of Varna"
Kazimierz IV
(Casimir III/IV)
Jagiellon 1447-1492
Jan I Olbracht
(John I Albert)
Jagiellon 1492-1501
Aleksander
(Alexander)
Jagiellon 1501-1506
Zygmunt I the Old
(Sigismund I)
Jagiellon 1506-1548
Zygmunt II August I
(Sigismund II August I)
Jagiellon 1548-1572

Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth

Ruler Dynasty Reign Notes
Henryk Walezy
(Henry III)
Valois 1573-1574 abandoned the Polish-Lithuanian throne on becoming King of France
Maksymilian II
(Maximilian I)
Habsburg 1575 election contested after four days
Anna Jagiellon King 1575-1586 reigned together with her husband Stephen Báthory
Stefan I Batory
(Stephen I Báthory)
Báthory 1576-1586 reigned together with his wife Anna; regarded as one of the greatest kings of Poland
Maksymilian III
(Maximilian II)
Habsburg 1587 defeated by Zygmunt Vasa
Zygmunt III
(Sigismund III )
Vasa 1587-1632 Also King of Sweden 1592-1599
Władysław IV
(Ladislas IV)
Vasa 1632-1648
Jan II Kazimierz
(John II Casimir)
Vasa 1648-1668
Michał Korybut
(Michael I)
Wiśniowiecki 1669-1673
Jan III
(John III)
Sobieski 1674-1696
August II Mocny
(Augustus II the Strong)
Wettin 1697-1706 abdicated
Stanisław I
(Stanislas I)
Leszczyński 1706-1709 yielded to Augustus II
August II Mocny
(Augustus II the Strong)
Wettin 1709-1733 restored
Stanisław I
(Stanislas I)
Leszczyński 1733-1736 restored, defeated in War of the Polish Succession, abdicated
August III Sas
(Augustus III)
Wettin 1734-1763
Stanisław II August
(Stanislas II August)
Poniatowski 1764-1795 abdicated

Claim made by foreign states after Partitions of Poland

Ruler English Dynasty Reign Notes

Kings of Galicia and Lodomeria

Maria Teresa Maria Theresa Habsburg 1772-1780 the Austrian portion obtained in the first partition of Poland
Józef II Joseph II Habsburg-Lorraine 1780-1790
Leopold II Leopold II Habsburg-Lorraine 1790-1792
Franciszek II Francis II Habsburg-Lorraine 1792-1835
Ferdynand I Ferdinand I Habsburg-Lorraine 1835-1848
Franciszek Józef I Francis Joseph I Habsburg-Lorraine 1848-1916
Karol I Charles I Habsburg-Lorraine 1916-1918

Dukes of Warsaw

Fryderyk August Frederick August I Wettin 1807-1815 created in 1807 as a satellite of Napoleon, dissolved at the Congress of Vienna and divided into the Russian Kingdom of Poland and the Prussian Grand Duchy of Poznań

Kings of "Congress" Kingdom of Poland

Aleksander I Alexander I Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov 1815-1825 created at the Congress of Vienna and therefore dubbed "Congress Poland"
Mikołaj I Nicholas I Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov 1825-1855 deposed by Sejm during uprising of 1831, autonomy abolished in 1832
Aleksander II Alexander II Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov 1855-1881 annexed into Russia after uprising in 1863
Aleksander III Alexander III Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov 1881-1894
Mikołaj II Nicholas II Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov 1894-1917 abdicated

Grand Dukes of Poznań

Fryderyk Wilhelm III Frederick William III Hohenzollern 1815-1840 created at the Congress of Vienna; represented by Duke-Governor Antoni Radziwiłł until 1831
Fryderyk Wilhelm IV Frederick William IV Hohenzollern 1840-1861 autonomy abolished in 1849
Wilhelm I William I Hohenzollern 1861-1888
Fryderyk III Frederick III Hohenzollern 1888
Wilhelm II William II Hohenzollern 1888-1918 abdicated 9 November 1918

See also

External links

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