Stair

Stair

[stair]
Stair, James Dalrymple, 1st Viscount, 1619-95, Scottish jurist. A student and then a regent of the Univ. of Glasgow, he was admitted to the bar in 1648. He supported the exiled Charles II and refused to swear allegiance to the Commonwealth, but he was nevertheless appointed (1657) a judge. After the Restoration he was prominent until his sympathy with the Covenanters at the time of the Scottish Test Act caused him to lose (1681) his appointment as judge. He then finished his Institutions of the Law of Scotland (1681), a great treatise on Scottish law. His exile in the Netherlands ended when he came (1688) to Great Britain with King William III, who made him lord advocate and raised him to the peerage.
Stair, John Dalrymple, 1st earl of, 1648-1707, Scottish statesman; son of Viscount Stair. He served under James II, but sponsored the accession (1688) of William III in the Scottish Parliament and became (1691) that monarch's joint secretary of state for Scotland. His political skill and eloquence enabled him to dominate the Scottish Parliament. For his authorization of the massacre at Glencoe (1692) he was forced to resign (1695). He reentered Parliament in 1700 and became a privy councilor (1702) and earl of Stair (1703). He actively promoted the union of Scotland and England.
Stair, John Dalrymple, 2d earl of, 1673-1747, Scottish general and diplomat; son of the 1st earl of Stair. He began a military career in the Netherlands, but on his father's death returned home and was elected (1707) one of 16 Scottish representative peers in the newly united Parliament of Great Britain. Becoming an assistant to the 1st duke of Marlborough in Flanders, he was sent (1709) as envoy to Augustus II of Poland. For his military achievements he was made (1710) general, but he fell from royal favor along with his friend Marlborough. At the accession of George I, Stair was sent as envoy to Paris, where from 1715 to 1720 his network of spies effectively thwarted the intrigues of the Jacobites. He was vice admiral of Scotland (1720-33) but lost the office because of his opposition to Robert Walpole's Excise Bill (1733). After Walpole fell from office in 1742, the earl was created field marshal and commanded the so-called pragmatic army in Flanders and Germany.
or staircase

Series or flight of steps that provides a means of moving from one level to another. The earliest stairways seem to have been built with walls on both sides, as in Egyptian pylons dating from the 2nd millennium BC. The Romans were noted for their monumental stairs. The modern use of steel and reinforced concrete has made possible the curves and sweeps of contemporary design. Staircases have traditionally been built of wood, marble or stone, and iron or steel. A step's horizontal surface is called its tread, the vertical front its riser. Traditional wooden staircases are constructed with stringers, beams inclined to the angle of the staircase. Stringers are supported by newel posts, which also support the handrail, forming a balustrade.

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The Val Müstair (German: Münstertal, Italian: Val Monastero) is a mountain valley in the Swiss Alps. It connects the Pass dal Fuorn (Ofenpass, 2149 m) with the Italian province of Bolzano-Bozen and the Vinschgau-Val Venosta (914 meter).

The Benedictine Convent of Saint John at Müstair (monastery), a World Heritage site, was probably founded by Charlemagne, sharing history with its neighbor, the Marienberg Abbey.

The most important villages in the Val Müstair are: Tschierv (1660 meter), Valchava (1412 meter), Sta. Maria (1375 meter), Müstair (1247 meter) (all Swiss) and Taufers im Münstertal in South Tyrol. There are no other inhabited connected valleys, but the road over the Umbrail Pass (and the Stelvio Pass) is connected with Sta. Maria.

The largest part of the valley is part of the Swiss canton of Graubünden. A small part lies within the region of Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol. The border is located at approximately 1245 meter between Müstair (1247 meter) and Taufers-Tubre (1240 meter).

The river in the valley is the Rom (Il Rom or Rombach).

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