Bornova is a district of İzmir Province in Turkey. It is one of the nine districts in the Greater Metropolitan Area of İzmir, the third largest, and is almost entirely urbanized at the rate of 98,6 per cent, with corresponding high levels of development in terms of industry and services . Bornova center is situated at a distance of to the northeast from the traditional center of İzmir (Konak) and from the coastline at the tip of the Gulf of İzmir to the east. Bornova district area is surrounded by the district areas of Manisa center and Menemen to the north, Kemalpaşa to the east, Buca to the south, and Konak and Karşıyaka to the west, where the larger part of İzmir's urban area extends. Bornova is home to Ege University's main campus and its name is synonymous for many and at national level with the university hospital, one of the largest and the foremost medical centers in western Turkey since decades.
The recent discovery, within the boundaries of Bornova district, of Yeşilova Höyük, on which the fieldwork continues, seems to indicate that Bornova's alluvial plain, fed by several small rivers, or brooks, was the place chosen for the very first settlement across İzmir area by the Neolithic-Calcolithic inhabitants of the region.
The urban area is divided into 36 neighborhoods.
Indeed, Bornova used to be a summer residence for many foreign consuls and wealthy businessmen fleeing the stagnantly hot weather in central İzmir to seek the cooler breeze of the slopes of Mount Yamanlar from where Bornova has grown. This move by diplomats and the rich was at the very origin of the town's growth in the 19th century, since it used to be a small forestry village until then. The mansions and residences built at that time, and most of which reached our day, restored and in public or private use, are usually still called by the prestigious names of the former owners, such as Whittal, Maltass, Peterson, Giraud, Edwards, Belhomme, Pandespanian. There is a small Catholic Church named the "Church of Santa Maria" in the main square of Bornova and an Anglican chapel nearby, both dating from the 19th century, landmarks of Bornova's cosmopolitan past.
Bornova also made sports history in Turkey when the first football match ever held in the Ottoman Empire was played in Bornova in 1890 between British sailors on shore leave against young men of İzmir. Turkey's first athletic contest was also held in Bornova in 1895.
The municipality of Bornova was established in 1881 and the town became a district center in 1957.
The population's growth rate reached as high as 30-35 per cent in certain years. Bornova could nevertheless preserve its orderly outlook, with the privately and legally built constructions and social housing keeping at pace with the increase in population, and very few slum-type residences, as many boomtowns across Turkey are still scourged with, among the 147,037 residential buildings the district counts.
On the other hand, a number of tragedies occurred in recent past due to delays in improvements along the river beds of the four streams that cross Bornova to join the Gulf of İzmir (Bornova, Laka, Manda and Şeytanderesi brooks), while residences were mushrooming around these. Furthermore, two cement mills which were constructed and stone quarries which were opened in what was empty fields decades ago are now located next to residences, and the pollution caused by the former establishments is an ongoing issue of concern.
Bornova is currently the eastern terminus of İzmir's subway rapid transit line whose extension continues, and access to and from the city center, as well as between various localities of İzmir is relatively easy with either public or private transports. Since İzmir's central bus terminal, the huge İZOTAŞ in Altındağ quarter where an estimated fifty thousand people arrive or depart each day, as well as the road junctions connecting İzmir and the regions to its south, to İstanbul, Ankara and the rest of Turkey, are located within the boundaries of Bornova, intercity connections are made relatively easy.
|Type of educational|
|Nr. of |
|Other high schools||19||4,712||3,515||501|
Bornova counts 80 primary schools and 102 kindergartens. At secondary-level education, there are 19 high schools and 22 professional schools. The figures for the student and teacher's corps are shown in the table. The average student per teacher ratio obtained (22,1 %), with primary education the most congested at 25,5 %, correspond to rather comfortable levels compared to many cases across Turkey.
Higher-level educational institutions are assembled under the very large structure of Ege University, which brings together 11 faculties, 7 institutes, 6 higher education centers and 7 higher professional schools and 25 research centers. The university had 42,693 students and 2,895 academic staff in 2007. Its campus is also a important center of culture, sports, leisure and entertainment for all across İzmir.
In adult education, the state-managed Public Training Center and Professional Training Centers offer courses in various practical fields with a total of 100 trainers, and 12,356 people including participants in literacy courses received courses in these establishments in 2006. Illiteracy is an issue almost exclusively restricted to new migrants into Bornova, and especially to women among these. There are also a number of private initiatives in the same field, such as the 29 companies offering drivers license courses, although the necessity of extending such services further and deeper is a common concerrn frequently expressed at all levels.
|HEALTH||Nr. of |
|Nr. of |
|Nr. of |
|Nr. of |
|Nr. of auxiliary |
|Nr. of patients |
served in 2006
|Urgency and |
|Mothercare, childcare, |
family planning centers
855 Bornova companies are registered exporters and a total amount of 596,224,735 US Dollars could be estimated for 2006 as exports which were made by Bornova district companies. 83 companies with foreign capital participation operate in Bornova and the recorded amount of foreign direct investments between 1997-2007 was 71,928,267 US Dollars. Among instantly recognizable international names which operate with sizable Bornova bases, BMC, Tuborg, Efes Pilsen, CMS tyres can be cited. The textile and clothing wholesalers are concentrated in MTK industrial and marketing zone, built specially for these industries.
Bornova's vast plain has been a preferred location since more than a century for İzmir's industrial base. The choice of Bornova by numerous official institutions as their regional headquarters, combined with the services industry, with medical and legal services especially standing out, as well as other professions, all contribute to the pace of the district. Agricultural production is comparatively very modest in added value.
Bornova's open market days or bazaars (held every Wednesday and Sunday) are also well-known in the region and a surprising variety of fresh fruits, vegetables, clothing, kitchenware and crafted products can be found by joining the youthful crowd of the market.
There are three theater buildings in Bornova, the one located inside the town's central park, Uğur Mumcu Theater being the most popular. The one museum located within Bornova is Ege University's large Natural History Museum, integrated into the university structure and it is the second largest in Turkey in its field after that MTA in Ankara. There are five libraries with a collection of books numbering 32,378 in total (excepting Ege University library) and three congress centers, all three privately managed within the structure of Bornova's single large hotel.
279 parks in all, almost all with playfields for children, are scattered across Bornova. Pınarbaşı racing (go-kart and motorcycle) fields, which is Turkey's longest, covering an area of 25 hectares, 7 swimming pools, 8 tennis courts, 2 indoor sports halls, 4 soccer fields and 54 basketball fields compose Bornova's sports infrastructure. 8,591 licensed sports persons inhabit the district.
Five newspapers are published in Bornova and two radio stations are in activity. The total number of cable TV subscriptions is 27,066. 412 civil associations are registered in Bornova and the total number of their members is 36,525. There are about a hundred mosques and three churches.
A large recreational area which bears Homer's name, to whom İzmir lays one of the strongest claims, is in phase of construction in a 3,5 km long valley to the northeast of Bornova center, and it is already very popular among residents although, located at some distance from the poet's native river Meles, the choice of the name may be historically discutable for pedantics. There is also a Roman bridge on part of the River Nif which crosses Bornova district area. The mountain passage at the locality called Belkahve where, coming from the east, one sees İzmir for the very first time and in a very impressive panorama, is within Bornova district and is now arranged into a park and picnic area in memory of one such impressed incomer in 1922, Atatürk. Efforts are also made to preserve, restore and promote the picturesque village of Yakaköy with many old houses and fountains in Turkish style.