Definitions

# square

square, closed plane figure bounded by four straight line segments of equal length and meeting at right angles. The points of intersection of the lines, or sides, are called vertices. The diagonals of a square are the two lines joining opposite vertices; they are of equal length and are the perpendicular bisectors of one another. The perimeter of a square is the sum of the lengths of its sides, or P=4s, where s is the length of a side. The area enclosed by a square is A=s2. The square is one of the commonest geometric figures and has long had various symbolic meanings in religion and art.
square, magic: see magic square.

Dance for sets of four couples standing in square formation. The most popular type of U.S. folk dance, it derived from the quadrille and was originally called a square dance to distinguish it from the contra, or longways, dance (for a double line of couples) and the round dance (for a circle of couples). The U.S. square dance progresses through specific patterns called or sung out to the dancers by a caller and accompanied by lively music played on instruments such as fiddle, banjo, accordion, guitar, and piano.

In measurement, a device consisting of two straightedges set at a right angle. It is used by carpenters and machinists to check the correctness of right angles, as a guide when drawing lines on materials before cutting, or for locating holes. In mechanical drawing or drafting, a T-shaped instrument known as a T square is used to establish a horizontal reference on the drafting board.

Geometrical representation of the traditional logical relations of opposition (contradictories, contraries, subalterns) among the four types of propositions (universal affirmative or A-proposition, universal negative or E, particular affirmative or I, particular negative or O) in the Aristotelian doctrine of the syllogism. At the top left is the A; at the top right is the E; below the A is the I; and below the E is the O. The A and the O, like the E and I, are contradictories (diagonal relations); the A and the E are contraries; and the I is subaltern to (hence implied by) the A, the O subaltern to the E. Whereas contradictories have opposite truth-values (one true, the other false), contraries cannot both be true but can both be false.

One of the largest public squares in the world, originally designed and built in Beijing in 1651 and enlarged in 1958. It is named for the massive stone “Gate of Heavenly Peace” (Tiananmen) at its northern end. It contains and is surrounded by halls, museums, and monuments, including the Mao Zedong Memorial Hall, where Mao's body rests in state. Tiananmen Square is the site of numerous parades and other celebrations. It has also been the rallying point for political demonstrations, including events during the May Fourth Movement in 1919 and during May–June 1989.

Square may mean:

### Language

• A modifier adjective, used when describing fielding positions in cricket
• An adjective or noun, used when describing two positions parallel with one another relative to the goal in football (soccer)
• Square character (■), a written character
• Square (slang), an unhip person or a cigarette

### Other

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