In U.S. politics, the practice by political parties of rewarding partisans and workers after winning an election. Proponents claim it helps maintain an active party organization by offering supporters jobs and contracts. Critics charge that it awards appointments to the unqualified and is inefficient because even jobs unrelated to public policy change hands after an election. In the U.S., the Pendleton Civil Service Act (1883) was the first step in introducing the merit system in the hiring of government workers. The merit system has almost completely replaced the spoils system. Seealso civil service.
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Aboveground Vegetation, Seed Bank and Soil Analysis of a 31-Year-Old Forest Restoration on Coal Mine Spoil in Southeastern Ohio
Jan 01, 2002; ABSTARCT.-A 31-y-old forest restoration on coal mine spoil was studied to assess soil chemical composition, percent change in...
Impact of vegetative cover and slope on runoff, erosion, and water quality for field plots on a range of soil and spoil materials on central Queensland coal mines.
Mar 01, 2000; Introduction Draglines are used in most open-cut coal mines in Australia, with the result that landscapes after mining generally...