Spitz

Spitz

[spits]
Spitz, Mark Andrew, 1950-, American swimmer, b. Modesto, Calif. He held records for winning the most gold medals at one Olympic game (seven, in 1972 at Munich) and shared the record for most Olympic gold medals overall (nine, 1968-72) until surpassed in both by Michael Phelps in the 2008. Spitz's 1972 victories were in the 100-m and 200-m freestyle, the 100-m and 200-m butterfly, and as a member of three relay teams. In 1968, at Mexico City, he won golds in two relays, a silver in the 100-m butterfly, and a bronze in the 100-m freestyle. Spitz retired and became a television sports commentator.

Any of several northern dogs, including the chow chow, Pomeranian, and Samoyed, characterized by a dense, long coat, erect pointed ears, and a tail that curves over the back. In the U.S., the name is often given to any small, white, long-haired dog; it is also used for the American Eskimo dog. European breeds include the Finnish spitz, with a bright reddish brown coat, and the Lapland spitz, which has a white, brown, or blackish coat.

Learn more about spitz with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Feb. 10, 1950, Modesto, Calif., U.S.) U.S. swimmer. He swam in college for Indiana University. At the 1968 Olympic Games he won two gold medals in team relay races. In the 1972 Olympics he won four individual men's events (setting world records in all four) and three team events (one world record); Spitz's feat of winning seven gold medals in a single Olympic Games remains unmatched.

Learn more about Spitz, Mark (Andrew) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Feb. 10, 1950, Modesto, Calif., U.S.) U.S. swimmer. He swam in college for Indiana University. At the 1968 Olympic Games he won two gold medals in team relay races. In the 1972 Olympics he won four individual men's events (setting world records in all four) and three team events (one world record); Spitz's feat of winning seven gold medals in a single Olympic Games remains unmatched.

Learn more about Spitz, Mark (Andrew) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Spitz-type dogs (the correct German plural is Spitze, though Spitzen is commonly used in the United States) are a type of dog, characterized by long, thick, and often white fur, and pointed ears and muzzles. The tail is usually curled over the dog's back.

Origins

The exact origins of Spitz-type dogs are not known, though most of the Spitz-types seen today originate from the Arctic regions. The type was described as Canis pomeranus by Johann Friedrich Gmelin in his revision of Systema naturae in 1788 (printed in English in 1792.)

There is no archaeological evidence showing transition stages between the wolf and the often-similar Spitz-type dogs. Skeletal remains up to 5,000 years old suggest it is far more likely that the ancestors of Spitz types mated with wolves. In recent genetic testing of dog breeds, many Spitz-types were found to be in the group closest to wolves, presumed to be the oldest types of dogs.

Humans have intentionally mated Spitz types with wolves in more recent times to achieve or maintain the wolf-like appearance of breeds such as the Alaskan Malamute.

Migrations

About three thousand years ago, dogs began to migrate from the Arctic into temperate Europe, North America, Asia, and to a lesser extent, Africa.

Skeletal remains around 2,000 years old unearthed in Switzerland indicate that Spitz-type dogs have inhabited Central Europe for millennia. These dogs are almost certainly the ancestors of the European Spitz-types, such as the German Spitz and Schipperke.

Many Spitz-types also migrated into Siberia and Mongolia. Over the centuries, many of these dogs were transported by humans to Japan, most likely from Manchuria. These Asian Spitz types are the ancestors of today's breeds such as the Chow Chow and the Akita Inu.

Working dogs

Through selective breeding, Spitz types have evolved to fit three purposes helping humans: hunting, herding, and pulling sleds.

The larger and more powerful breeds such as the Karelian Bear Dog and the Norwegian Elkhound were used for big game hunting, helping humans kill moose and brown bear.

Smaller breeds such as the Finnish Spitz and the Lundehund were used in Scandinavia to hunt birds and smaller mammals.

The largest of all the Spitz types, notably the Canadian Eskimo Dog and the Greenland Dog, were used to pull sleds up until the 19th century. During that century, when fur trapping became a lucrative business, people began to realize that size did not necessarily relate with endurance, and the smaller Siberian Husky came to be used more frequently in Canada and Alaska. The Finnish Lapphund was used by the Sami people.

Adaptation to the Arctic

Spitz types are well suited to living in harsh northern climates. They often have an insulating, waterproof undercoat that is denser than the topcoat to trap warmth.

Small ears help reduce the risk of frostbite, and thick fur that grows on the paws protects the dogs from sharp ice.

However, many Spitz-type breeds retain wolf-like characteristics such as independence, suspiciousness, and aggression towards unfamiliar humans or other dogs, and can therefore require much training before they become manageable. Some, such as the Karelian Bear Dog, are almost impossible to train as companion dogs.

Companions and toys

The charming look of the Spitz-type, with its thick fur, fluffy ruff, curled tail and small muzzle and ears, have caused several people to create non-working types designed to be companions or lap dogs. This trend is most evident in the tiny Pomeranian, which was originally a much larger dog closer to the size of a Keeshond before being bred down to make an acceptable court animal. The Keeshond, the Wolfspitz variation of the German Spitz, widely known as the national dog of the Netherlands, is an affectionate and loyal, albeit very energetic, pet.

Other Spitz types which have been bred away from working uses are the American Eskimo Dog, the Alaskan Klee Kai, the German Spitz, the Pomeranian, and even the Papillon.

List of Spitz-type dog breeds

This list might not be complete and is, at best, an educated guess from experts and dog fanciers based on the physical characteristics of the breeds. Some, such as the Papillon, exhibit the tail, coat, and head of a Spitz dog, but its ears more closely resemble spaniels although being uprightlike the Spitz. In the future, genetic studies might better clarify the relationship among various breeds. Note that dogs listed here might also be classified as toy dogs, herding dogs, sled dogs, and in other types.

Akita Inu
Alaskan Husky
Alaskan Klee Kai
Alaskan Malamute
American Akita
American Eskimo Dog
Basenji
Black Norwegian Elkhound
Canaan Dog
Canadian Eskimo Dog
Chow Chow
East Siberian Laika
Eurasier
Finnish Lapphund
Finnish Spitz
German Spitz
Greenland Dog
Guejae Gae
Hokkaidō
Icelandic Sheepdog
Indian Spitz
Jämthund
Japanese Spitz
Kai
Karelian Bear Dog
Karelo-Finnish Laika
Keeshond
Kintamani
Kishu
Korea Jindo Dog
Labrador Husky
Lapponian Herder (Lapinporokoira)
Mackenzie River Husky
Nenets Herding Laika
Norrbottenspets
Northern Inuit Dog
Norwegian Buhund
Norwegian Elkhound
Norwegian Lundehund
Papillon
Pomeranian
Pungsan
Russo-European Laika
Ryūkyū Inu
Sakhalin Husky
Salish Wool Dog
Samoyed
Sanshu
Schipperke
Seppala Siberian Sleddog
Shiba Inu
Shikoku
Siberian Husky
Swedish Lapphund
Swedish Vallhund
Thai Bangkaew Dog
Volpino Italiano
West Siberian Laika

References

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