spintronics

spintronics

spintronics, spin electronics, or magnetoelectronics, science and technology that harnesses the spin state of electrons in addition the electrical charge state to store data or perform calculations. The spin of an electron is a property that makes the electron act like a tiny magnet. This property—detected as a weak magnetic force—can be used to encode information in electronic circuits, computers, and similar electronic devices. Conventional electronics on the other hand ignores these spins and instead employs the accumulation or movement of electrons (or other carriers of electric charge, especially semiconductor devices) to encode information.

The first major breakthrough in spintronics was the discovery of the giant magnetoresistance (GMR) effect in 1988. Working independently, Albert Fert in France and Peter Grünberg in Germany found that in a material consisting of alternating layers of magnetic and nonmagnetic atoms a very small change in a magnetic field can produce a large change in electrical resistance. Employing advances in nanotechnology (see under micromechanics), they used chemical techniques that allowed them to make layers of different materials that were only a few atoms thick. The GMR effect was used in the development of data-storage devices that were physically smaller but allowed increasingly denser packing of the information content. The first commercial devices using the GMR effect, produced in 1997, had a 40-fold increase in data density when compared with conventional electronics. The technology is now used in computer storage, personal music players, PDAs, cell phones, and other devices that benefit from the increased size of readable memory. In a more sensitive effect, called tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR), an insulating material acts as a sandwich. Electrons can move through the sandwich by quantum tunneling. Another spintronic breakthrough product is magnetoresistive memory (MRAM), which uses electron spin to store information; while requiring less power than coventional magnetic storage technologies, it combines the density of DRAM (dynamic random access memory) with the speed of SRAM (static random access memory) and the nonvolatility of flash memory. In recognition of their contributions, Fert and Grünberg shared the 2007 Nobel Prize in physics.

Spintronics (a neologism meaning "spin transport electronics), also known as magnetoelectronics, is an emerging technology which exploits the intrinsic spin of electrons and its associated magnetic moment, in addition to its fundamental electronic charge, in solid-state devices.

History

The research field of Spintronics emerged from experiments on spin-dependent electron transport phenomena in solid-state devices done in the 1980s, including the observation of spin-polarized electron injection from a ferromagnetic metal to a normal metal by Johnson and Silsbee (1985), and the discovery of giant magnetoresistance independently by Albert Fert et al. and Peter Grünberg et al. (1988). The origins can be traced back further to the ferromagnet/superconductor tunneling experiments pioneered by Meservey and Tedrow, and initial experiments on magnetic tunnel junctions by Julliere in the 1970s. The use of semiconductors for spintronics can be traced back at least as far as the theoretical proposal of a spin field-effect-transistor by Datta and Das in 1990.

Theory

Electrons are spin-1/2 fermions and therefore constitute a two-state system with spin "up" and spin "down". To make a spintronic device, the primary requirements are to have a system that can generate a current of spin polarized electrons comprising more of one spin species -- up or down -- than the other (called a spin injector), and a separate system that is sensitive to the spin polarization of the electrons (spin detector). Manipulation of the electron spin during transport between injector and detector (especially in semiconductors) via spin precession can be accomplished using real external magnetic fields or effective fields caused by spin-orbit interaction.

Spin polarization in non-magnetic materials can be achieved either through the Zeeman effect in large magnetic fields and low temperatures, or by non-equilibrium methods. In the latter case, the non-equilibrium polarization will decay over a timescale called the "spin lifetime". Spin lifetimes of conduction electrons in metals are relatively short (typically less than 1 nanosecond) but in semiconductors the lifetimes can be very long (microseconds at low temperatures), especially when the electrons are isolated in local trapping potentials (for instance, at impurities, where lifetimes can be milliseconds).

Metals-based Spintronic Devices

The simplest method of generating a spin-polarised current in a metal is to pass the current through a ferromagnetic material. The most common application of this effect is a giant magnetoresistance (GMR) device. A typical GMR device consists of at least two layers of ferromagnetic materials separated by a spacer layer. When the two magnetization vectors of the ferromagnetic layers are aligned, the electrical resistance will be lower (so a higher current flows at constant voltage) than if the ferromagnetic layers are anti-aligned. This constitutes a magnetic field sensor.

Two variants of GMR have been applied in devices: (1) current-in-plane (CIP), where the electric current flows parallel to the layers and (2) current-perpendicular-to-plane (CPP), where the electric current flows in a direction perpendicular to the layers.

Other metals-based spintronics devices:

  • Tunnel Magnetoresistance (TMR), where CPP transport is achieved by using quantum-mechanical tunneling of electrons through a thin insulator separating ferromagnetic layers.
  • Spin Torque Transfer, where a current of spin-polarized electrons is used to control the magnetization direction of ferromagnetic electrodes in the device.

Applications

The storage density of hard drives is rapidly increasing along an exponential growth curve, in part because spintronics-enabled devices like GMR and TMR sensors have increased the sensitivity of the read head which measures the magnetic state of small magnetic domains (bits) on the spinning platter. The doubling period for the areal density of information storage is twelve months, much shorter than Moore's Law, which observes that the number of transistors that can cheaply be incorporated in an integrated circuit doubles every two years.

MRAM, or magnetic random access memory, uses arrays of TMR or Spin torque transfer devices. MRAM is nonvolatile (unlike charge-based DRAM in today's computers) so information is stored even when power is turned off, potentially providing instant-on computing. Motorola has developed a 256 kb MRAM based on a single magnetic tunnel junction and a single transistor. This MRAM has a read/write cycle of under 50 nanoseconds. Another design in development, called Racetrack memory, encodes information in the direction of magnetization between domain walls of a ferromagnetic metal wire.

Semiconductor-based Spintronic Devices

In early efforts, spin-polarized electrons are generated via optical orientation using circularly-polarized photons at the bandgap energy incident on semiconductors with appreciable spin-orbit interaction (like GaAs and ZnSe). Although electrical spin injection can be achieved in metallic systems by simply passing a current through a ferromagnet, the large impedance mismatch between ferromagnetic metals and semiconductors prevented efficient injection across metal-semiconductor interfaces. A solution to this problem is to use ferromagnetic semiconductor sources (like manganese-doped gallium arsenide GaMnAs), increasing the interface resistance with a tunnel barrier, or using hot-electron injection.

Spin detection in semiconductors is another challenge, which has been met with the following techniques:

  • Faraday/Kerr rotation of transmitted/reflected photons
  • Circular polarization analysis of electroluminescence
  • Nonlocal spin valve (adapted from Johnson and Silsbee's work with metals)
  • Ballistic spin filtering

The latter technique was used to overcome the lack of spin-orbit interaction and materials issues to achieve spin transport in Silicon, the most important semiconductor for electronics.

Because external magnetic fields (and stray fields from magnetic contacts) can cause large Hall effects and magnetoresistance in semiconductors (which mimic spin-valve effects), the only conclusive evidence of spin transport in semiconductors is demonstration of spin precession and dephasing in a magnetic field non-colinear to the injected spin orientation. This is called the Hanle effect.

Applications

Advantages of semiconductor-based spintronics applications are potentially lower power use and a smaller footprint than electrical devices used for information processing. Also, applications such as semiconductor lasers using spin-polarized electrical injection have shown threshold current reduction and controllable circularly polarized coherent light output. Future applications may include a spin-based transistor having advantages over MOSFET devices such as steeper sub-threshold slope.

See also

References

Further reading

  • "Introduction to Spintronics". Marc Cahay, Supriyo Bandyopadhyay, CRC Press, ISBN 0-8493-3133-1
  • Ultrafast Manipulation of Electron Spin Coherence. J. A. Gupta, R. Knobel, N. Samarth and D. D. Awschalom in Science, Vol. 292, pages 2458-2461; June 29, 2001.
  • Spintronics: A Spin-Based Electronics Vision for the Future. S. A. Wolf et al, Science 294, 1488-1495 (2001)
  • How to Create a Spin Current. P. Sharma, Science 307, 531-533 (2005)
  • Search Google Scholar for highly cited articles with query: spintronics OR magnetoelectronics OR "spin based electronics"
  • "Electron Manipulation and Spin Current". D. Grinevich. 3rd Edition, 2003.*

External links

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