Definitions

spectrochemical

A spectrochemical series is a list of ligands ordered on ligand strength and a list of metal ions based on oxidation number, group and its identity. In crystal field theory, ligands modify the difference in energy between the d orbitals (Δ - ligand-field splitting parameter, or crystal-field splitting parameter), what is mainly reflected in differences in color of similar metal-ligand complexes.

A partial spectrochemical series listing of ligands from small Δ to large Δ:

I < Br < S2− < SCN < Cl < NO3 < N3 < F < OH < C2O42− ≈ H2O < NCS < CH3CN < py (pyridine) < NH3 < en (ethylenediamine) < bipy (2,2'-bipyridine) < phen (1,10-phenanthroline) < NO2 < PPh3 < CN ≈ CO

(for a table, see the ligand page)

See also

References

  • Zumdahl, Steven S. Chemical Principles Fifth Edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2005. 550-551,957-964.
  • D. F. Shriver and P. W. Atkins Inorganic Chemistry 3rd edition, Oxford University Press, 2001. Pages: 227-236.

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