In order to achieve this, EMC pursues two different kinds of issues. Emission issues are related to the unwanted generation of electromagnetic energy by some source, and to the countermeasures which should be taken in order to reduce such generation and to avoid the escape of any remaining energies into the external environment. Susceptibility or immunity issues, in contrast, refer to the correct operation of electrical equipment, referred to as the victim, in the presence of unplanned electromagnetic disturbances.
Interference, or noise, mitigation and hence electromagnetic compatibility is achieved primarily by addressing both emission and susceptibility issues, i.e., quieting the sources of interference and hardening the potential victims. The coupling path between source and victim may also be separately addressed to increase its attenuation.
The origin of noise can be man made or natural.
Sources divide broadly into isolated and repetitive events.
The basic arrangement of noise source, coupling path and victim, receptor or sink is shown in the figure below. Source and sink are usually electronic hardware devices, though the source may be a natural phenomenon such as a lightning strike, electrostatic discharge (ESD) or, in one famous case, the Big Bang at the origin of the Universe.
There are four basic coupling mechanisms: conductive, capacitive, magnetic or inductive, and radiative. Any coupling path can be broken down into one or more of these coupling mechanisms working together. For example the lower path in the diagram involves inductive, conductive and capacitive modes.
For a complex piece of equipment, this may require the production of a dedicated EMC control plan summarising the application of the above and specifying additional documents required.
The risk posed by the threat is usually statistical in nature, so much of the work in threat characterisation and standards setting is based on reducing the probability of disruptive EMI to an acceptable level, rather than its assured elimination.
The Federal Communications Commission for the United States; CEN (Comité Européen de Normalisation or European Committee for Standardization); CENELEC (Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechniques or European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization); ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute) for Europe; and BSI (British Standards Institution) for Britain.
There are also several international organizations who try "to promote international co-operation on all questions of standardization" (harmonization), including EMC standards.
The most important international organization is the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), which has several committees working full time on EMC issues.
These are Technical Committee 77 ("TC77") working on "electromagnetic compatibility between equipment including networks", and the CISPR (Comité international spécial des perturbations radioélectriques or International Special Committee on Radio Interference).
Co-ordination of the IEC's work on EMC between these committees is the responsibility of the ACEC, the advisory committee on EMC.
By European law, manufacturers of electronic devices are advised to run EMC tests in order to comply with compulsory CE-labeling. Undisturbed usage of electric devices for all customers should be ensured and the electromagnetic field strength should be kept on a minimum level. EU directive 2004/108/CE (previously 89/336/EEC) on EMC announces the rules for the distribution of electric devices within the European Union. A good overview of EME limits and EMI demands is given in List of EMC directives.
Since breaking a coupling path is equally effective at either the start or the end of the path, many aspects of good EMC design practice apply equally to potential emitters and to potential victims. Further, a circuit which easily couples energy to the outside world will equally easily couple energy in and will be susceptible. A single design improvement often reduces both emissions and susceptibility.
RF testing of a physical prototype is most often carried out in a radio-frequency anechoic chamber.
Open-air test sites are sometimes used, especially for emissions testing of large equipment systems.
Sometimes computational electromagnetics simulations are used to test virtual models.
Like all compliance testing, it is important that the test equipment, including the test chamber or site, be properly calibrated and maintained.
Typically, a given run of tests for a particular piece of equipment will require an EMC test plan and follow-up Test report. The full test programme wmay require the production of several such documents.
Conducted voltage and current susceptibility testing typically involves a high-powered signal or pulse generator, and a current clamp or some other type of transformer to inject the test signal.
Some electrostatic discharge testing is performed with a piezo spark generator called an "ESD pistol". Higher energy pulses, such as lightning or nuclear EMP simulations, can require a large current clamp or an antenna so large that the EUT is placed inside it.
Typically a spectrum analyzer is used to measure the emission levels of the equipment under test (EUT) across a wide band of frequencies (frequency domain). For radiated interference this must be measured in all directions.
Some pulse emissions are more usefully characterised using an oscilloscope to capture the pulse waveform in the time domain.
As radio communications developed in the first half of the 20th Century, interference between broadcast radio signals began to appear and an international regulatory framework was set up to ensure interference-free communications.
As switching devices became commonplace, typically in petrol powered cars and motorcycles but also in domestic appliances such as thermostats and refrigerators, transient interference with domestic radio and (after World War II) TV reception became problematic, and in due course laws were passed requiring the suppression of such interference sources.
After World War II the military became increasingly concerned with the effects of nuclear electromagnetic pulse (NEMP), lightning strike, and even high-powered radar beams, on mobile vehicles of all kinds, and especially aircraft electrical systems.
When high RF emission levels from other sources became a potential problem (such as with the advent of microwave ovens), certain frequency bands were designated for Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM) use, allowing unlimited emissions. However a variety of issues such as sideband and harmonic emissions, broadband sources, and the increasing popularity of electrical switching devices and their victims, resulted in a steady development of standards and laws.
With the increasing popularity of modern digital circuitry, an accompanying increase in their switching speeds (increasing emissions), and lower circuit voltages (increasing susceptibility), EMC increasingly became a source of concern. Many more nations became aware of EMC as a growing problem and issued directives to the manufacturers of digital electronic equipment, which set out the essential manufacturer requirements before their equipment could be marketed or sold. Organizations in individual nations, across Europe, and worldwide, were set up to draw up and safeguard these directives and associated standards. This regulatory environment led to a growing EMC industry supplying specialist devices and equipment, analysis and design software, and testing and certification services.
Most recently, the ever-increasing use of mobile communications and broadcast media channels has put huge pressure on the available airspace. Regulatory authorities are squeezing band allocations closer and closer together, relying on increasingly sophisticated EMC design methods, especially in the digital communications arena, to keep cross-channel interference to acceptable levels. Digital systems are inherently less susceptible than the old analogue systems, and also offer far easier ways (such as software) to implement highly sophisticated protection measures.
Innovative control software for die sinker: Charmilles' new diesinkers incorporate control and software developed in co-operation with GE Fanuc, aimed at enhancing the man-machine interface and the machine-spark generator link.(virtual production)
Dec 01, 2003; CHARMILLES TECHNOLOGIES has some 45,000 machines in service worldwide. An EDM machine, which uses electrical discharge to remove...