Modern electric space heaters usually have ceramic heating elements rather than nichrome wires, and are fan-forced with a blower or squirrel-cage fan. These distribute heat much more evenly, and allow them to be encased in plastic, nearly eliminating the chance of burns or fire. Window and wall units, often seen in hotel rooms, are permanent space heaters. These often employ heat pumps, which use reverse-cycle air conditioning to provide heat to the inside rather than the outside.
Propane space heaters are generally one of two types, radiant (infrared) or circulation-type space heaters. Infrared propane space heaters function to heat objects which in turn heats the surrounding air whereas circulation type space heaters heat the air directly using a fan or convection. Additionally, propane space heaters are either vented or unvented. Unvented space heaters are low capacity heaters used to heat living areas but are not allowed in bedrooms, bathrooms or confined spaces due to fire danger and the possible accumulation of flue gases at high levels.
Kerosene heaters were once common, but may easily cause a fire, and must be completely cooled before being refueled.
In combined heat and power (CHP) plants the energy lost in e.g. turbine driven power plants is utilized for district heating. When space heating is supplied by district heating from CHP plants, the total energy efficiency approaches 100 % (and may even exceed 100 % based on the lower heating value of the fuel). CHP is a major part of the strategy for energy conservation and global warming prevention in Scandinavia - and increasingly in the rest of Europe.
WIPO ASSIGNS PATENT TO DIOSPHARMA FOR "SPACE-HEATING APPARATUS AND SPACE-HEATING METHOD" (SOUTH KOREAN INVENTOR)
Jul 01, 2011; GENEVA, July 1 -- Publication No. WO/2011/078570 was published on June 30. Title of the invention: "SPACE-HEATING APPARATUS AND...
A combined system for home comfort: space heating, water heating, and heat recovery ventilation have now been combined in a single unit. (Appliances).
Nov 01, 2002; After four years of focused research and development by a consortium gathered together by the government of Canada, the first...