Grouse are a group of birds from the order Galliformes. Often considered a family Tetraonidae, the American Ornithologists' Union and many others include grouse as a subfamily Tetraoninae in the family Phasianidae. Grouse inhabit temperate and subarctic regions of the northern hemisphere, from pine forests to moorland and mountainside. Most species are year-round residents, and do not migrate.
These birds feed mainly on vegetation, but also on insects, especially when feeding young. Several of the forest-living species are notable for eating large quantities of conifer needles, which most other vertebrates refuse. In all but one species (the Willow Grouse, called Willow Ptarmigan in America), males are polygamous, and many species have elaborate courtship displays. These heavily built birds have legs feathered to the toes.
Genus Lagopus - ptarmigans
Genus Tetrao - black grouse
Genus Centrocercus - sage-grouse
Genus Tympanuchus - prairie grouse