soil

soil

[soil]
soil, surface layer of the earth, composed of fine rock material disintegrated by geological processes; and humus, the organic remains of decomposed vegetation. In agriculture, soil is the medium that supports crop plants, both physically and biologically. Soil may be from a few inches to several feet thick.

Components and Structure

The inorganic fraction of soil may include various sizes and shapes of rocks and minerals; in order of increasing size these are termed clay, silt, sand, gravel, and stone. Coarser soils have lower capacity to retain organic plant nutrients, gases, and water, which are essential for plants. Soils with higher clay content, which tend to retain these substances, are therefore usually better suited for agriculture. In most soils, clay and organic particles aggregate into plates, blocks, prisms, or granules. The arrangement of particles, known as soil structure, largely determines the soil's pore space and density, which translates into its capacity to hold air and water. Organic matter consists of decomposed plant and animal material and living plant roots. Microorganisms, living in the organic portion of soil, perform the essential function of decomposing plant and animal matter, releasing nutrients to be used by growing plants.

Besides organic matter, soil is largely composed of elements and compounds of silicon, aluminum, iron, oxygen, and, in smaller quantities, calcium, magnesium, sodium, and potassium. Factors determining the nature of soil are vegetation type, climate, and parent rock material; geographic relief and the geological age of the developing soil are also factors. Acidic soils occur in humid regions because alkaline minerals are leached downward: alkaline soils occur in dry regions because alkaline salts remain concentrated near the surface. Geologically young soils resemble their parent material more than older soils, which have been altered over time by climate and vegetation. For advice and information on soils, consult state agricultural experiment stations and their publications.

Undisturbed soils tend to form layers, called horizons, roughly parallel to the surface. The Russian system of soil classification, from which most others derive, is based on the distinctive horizons of the soil profile. The A horizon, the surface layer, contains most of the humus. The B horizon contains inorganic compounds formed by decomposition of organic material, a process known as mineralization; the material is brought to the B layer by the downward leaching action of water. The lowest soil layer, the C horizon, represents the weathered mineral parent substance.

Soil Fertility and Conservation

Soil fertility—the ability to support plant growth—depends on various factors, including the soil's structure or texture; its chemical composition, esp. its content of plant nutrients; its supply of water; and its temperature. Agriculture necessarily lowers soil fertility by removing soil nutrients incorporated in the harvested crops. Cultivation, especially with heavy machinery, can degrade soil structure. Agricultural soils are also vulnerable to mismanagement. Exposure of soils to wind and rain during cultivation encourages erosion of the fertile surface. Excessive cropping or grazing can depress soil-nutrient levels and degrade soil structure.

Soil conservation techniques have been developed to address the range of soil management issues. Various methods of cultivation conserve soil fertility (see cover crop; rotation of crops). Minimum-tillage systems, often entailing herbicide use, avoid erosion and maintain soil structure. Soil fertility and agricultural productivity can also be improved, restored, and maintained by the correct use of fertilizer, either organic, such as manure, or inorganic, and other soil amendments. Organic matter can be added to improve soil structure. Soil acidity can be decreased by addition of calcium carbonate or increased by addition of sulfuric acid.

Bibliography

See F. R. Steiner, Soil Conservation in the United States (1990); M. Alexander, Introduction to Soil Microbiology (2d ed. 1991); E. J. Plaster, Soil Science and Management (2d ed. 1991); publications of the U.S. Soil Conservation Service.

A branch of soil science focusing on the formation, morphology, and classification of soils as bodies within the natural landscape. Pedology seeks to understand how the properties and distribution patterns of soils worldwide (collectively called the pedosphere) have developed along with broader landforms, biogeochemical environments, and habitats of living organisms. Through their understanding of the causes and magnitudes of soil variations, pedologists help to broaden knowledge of the surface of the Earth.

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Study of soils and their utilization, especially in planning foundations for structures and highways. How the soil of a given site will support the weight of structures or respond to movement in the course of construction depends on a number of properties (e.g., compressibility, elasticity, and permeability). Examination techniques include trench-digging, boring, and pumping samples to the surface with water. Seismic testing and measurement of electrical resistance also yield helpful information. In road construction, soil mechanics helps determine which type of pavement (rigid or flexible) will last longer. The study of soil characteristics is also used to choose the most suitable method for excavating underground tunnels. Seealso foundation, settling.

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The biologically active, porous medium that has developed in the uppermost layer of the Earth's crust. Soil serves as a natural reservoir of water and nutrients, as a medium for the filtration and breakdown of injurious wastes, and as a participant in the cycling of carbon and other elements through the global ecosystem. It has evolved through the weathering of solid materials such as consolidated rocks, sediments, glacial tills, volcanic ash, and organic matter. The bulk of soil consists of mineral particles composed of silicate ions combined with various metal ions. Organic soil content consists of undecomposed or partially decomposed biomass as well as humus, an array of organic compounds derived from broken down biomass.

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Soil is the naturally occurring, unconsolidated or loose covering of broken rock particles and decaying organic matter on the surface of the Earth, capable of supporting life. Soil particles pack loosely, forming a soil structure filled with pore spaces. These pores contain soil solution (liquid) and air (gas). Accordingly, soils are often treated as a three state system. Soil is also known as earth: it is the substance from which our planet takes its name.

Characteristics

Soil color is the first impression one has when viewing soil. Striking colors and contrasting patterns are especially memorable. The Red River in Louisiana carries sediment eroded from extensive reddish soils like Port Silt Loam in Oklahoma. Soil color results from chemical and biological weathering. As the primary minerals in parent material weather, the elements combine into new and colorful compounds. Iron forms secondary minerals with a yellow or red color; organic matter decomposes into brown compounds; and manganese, sulfur and nitrogen can form black mineral deposits.

Soil structure is the arrangement of soil particles into aggregates. These may have various shapes, sizes and degrees of development or expression.

Soil texture refers to sand, silt and clay composition. Sand and silt are the product of physical weathering while clay is the product of chemical weathering. Clay content is particularly influential on soil behavior due to a high retention capacity for nutrients and water.

The electrical resistivity of soil can affect the rate of galvanic corrosion of metallic structures in contact with it. Higher moister content or increased electrolyte concentration can lower the resistivity and thereby increase the rate of corrosion. Soil resistivity values typically range from about 100 to 1000 Ω·m, but more extreme values are not unusual.

Formation

Soil formation, or pedogenesis, is the combined effect of physical, chemical, biological, and anthropogenic processes on soil parent material resulting in the formation of soil horizons. Soil is always changing. The long periods over which change occurs and the multiple influences of change mean that simple soils are rare. While soil can achieve relative stability in properties for extended periods of time, the soil life cycle ultimately ends in soil conditions that leave it vulnerable to erosion. Little of the soil continuum of the earth is older than Tertiary and most no older than Pleistocene. Despite the inevitability of soils retrogression and degradation, most soil cycles are long and productive. How the soil "life" cycle proceeds is influenced by at least five classic soil forming factors: regional climate, biotic potential, topography, parent material, and the passage of time. An example of soil development from bare rock occurs on recent lava flows in warm regions under heavy and very frequent rainfall. In such climates plants become established very quickly on basaltic lava, even though there is very little organic material. The plants are supported by the porous rock becoming filled with nutrient bearing water, for example carrying dissolved bird droppings or guano. The developing plant roots themselves gradually break up the porous lava and organic matter soon accumulates. But even before it does, the predominantly porous broken lava in which the plant roots grow can be considered a soil.

In nature

Biogeography is the study of spatial variations in biological communities. Soils are restricting factor as to what plants can grow in which environments. Soil scientists survey soils in the hope of understanding controls as to what vegetation can and will grow in a particular location

Geologists also have a particular interest in the patterns of soil on the surface of the earth. Soil texture, color and chemistry often reflect the underlying geologic parent material and soil types often change at geologic unit boundaries. Buried paleosols mark previous land surfaces and record climatic conditions from previous eras. Geologists use this paleopedological record to understand the ecological relationships in past ecosystems. According to the theory of biorhexistasy, prolonged conditions conducive to forming deep, weathered soils result in increasing ocean salinity and the formation of limestone.

Geologists use soil profile features to establish the duration of surface stability in the context of geologic faults or slope stability. An offset subsoil horizon indicates rupture during soil formation and the degree of subsequent subsoil formation is relied upon to establish time since rupture.

Soil examined in shovel test pits is used by archaeologists for relative dating based on stratigraphy (as opposed to absolute dating). What is considered most typical is to use soil profile features to determine the maximum reasonable pit depth than needs to be examined for archaeological evidence in the interest of cultural resources management. Terra preta do Indio.

Soils altered or formed by man (anthropic and anthropogenic soils) are also of interest to archaeologists.

Uses

Soil is used in agriculture.The more moisture the soil of a certain place contains that place will have finer crops. Soil material is a critical component in the mining and construction industries. Soil serves as a foundation for most construction projects. Massive volumes of soil can be involved in surface mining, road building, and dam construction. Earth sheltering is the architectural practice of using soil for external thermal mass against building walls.

Soil resources are critical to the environment, as well as to food and fiber production. Soil provides minerals and water to plants. Soil absorbs rainwater and releases it later thus preventing floods and drought. Soil cleans the water as it percolates. Soil is the habitat for many organisms.

Waste management often has a soil component. Septic drain fields treat septic tank effluent uses aerobic soil processes. Landfills use soil for daily cover.

Organic soils, especially peat, serve as a significant fuel resource.

Both humans in many cultures and animals occasionally eat soil.

Degradation

Land degradation is a human indued or natural process which impairs the capacity of land to function. Soils are the critical component in land degradation when it involves acidification, contamination, desertification, erosion, or salination.

While soil acidification of alkaline soils is beneficial, it degrades land when soil acidity lowers crop productivity and increases soil vulnerability to contamination and erosion. Soils are often initially acid because their parent materials were acid and initially low in the basic cations (calcium, magnesium, potassium, and sodium). Acidification occurs when these elements are removed from the soil profile by normal rainfall or the harvesting of crops. Soil acidification is accelerated by the use of acid-forming nitrogenous fertilizers and by the effects of acid precipitation.

Soil contamination at low levels are often within soil capacity to treat and assimilate. Many waste treatment processes rely on this treatment capacity. Exceeding treatment capacity can damage soil biota and limit soil function. Derelict soils occur where industrial contamination or other development activity damages the soil to such a degree that the land cannot be used safely or productively. Remediation of derelict soil uses principles of geology, physics, chemistry, and biology to degrade, attenuate, isolate, or remove soil contaminants and to restore soil functions and values. Techniques include leaching, air sparging, chemical amendments, phytoremediation, bioremediation, and natural attenuation.

Desertification is an environmental process of ecosystem degradation in arid and semi-arid regions, or as a result of human activity. It is a common misconception that droughts cause desertification. Droughts are common in arid and semiarid lands. Well-managed lands can recover from drought when the rains return. Soil management tools include maintaining soil nutrient and organic matter levels, reduced tillage and increased cover. These help to control erosion and maintain productivity during periods when moisture is available. Continued land abuse during droughts, however, increases land degradation. Increased population and livestock pressure on marginal lands accelerates desertification.

Soil erosional loss is caused by wind, water, ice, movement in response to gravity. Although the processes may be simultaneous, erosion is distinguished from weathering. Erosion is an intrinsic natural process, but in many places it is increased by human land use. Poor land use practices include deforestation, overgrazing, and improper construction activity. Improved management can limit erosion using techniques like limiting disturbance during construction, avoiding construction during erosion prone periods, intercepting runoff, terrace-building, use of erosion suppressing cover materials and planting trees or other soil binding plants.

A serious and long-running water erosion problem is in China, on the middle reaches of the Yellow River and the upper reaches of the Yangtze River. From the Yellow River, over 1.6 billion tons of sediment flow each year into the ocean. The sediment originates primarily from water erosion (Gully erosion) in the Loess Plateau region of northwest China.

Soil piping is a particular form of soil erosion that occurs below the soil surface. It is associated with levee and dam failure as well as sink hole formation. Turbulent flow removes soil starting from the mouth of the seep flow and subsoil erosion advances upgradient. The term sand boil is used to describe the appearance of the discharging end of an active soil pipe.

Soil salination is the accumulation of free salts to such an extent that it leads to degradation of soils and vegetation. Consequences include corrosion damage, reduced plant growth, erosion due to loss of plant cover and soil structure, and water quality problems due to sedimentation. Salination occurs due to a combination of natural and human caused processes. Aridic conditions favor salt accumulation. This is especially apparent when soil parent material is saline. Irrigation of arid lands is especially problematic. All irrigation water has some level of salinity. Irrigation, especially when it involves leakage from canals, often raise the underlying water table. Rapid salination occurs when the land surface is within the capillary fringe of saline groundwater. Salinity control involves flushing with higher levels of applied water in combination with tile drainage.

See also

References

Further reading

  • Adams, J.A. 1986. Dirt. College Station, Texas : Texas A&M University Press ISBN 0890963010
  • Soil Survey Staff. (1975) Soil Taxonomy: A basic system of soil classification for making and interpreting soil surveys. USDA-SCS Agric. Handb. 436. U.S. Gov. Print. Office. Washington, DC.
  • Soil Survey Division Staff. (1999) Soil survey manual. Soil Conservation Service. U.S. Department of Agriculture Handbook 18.
  • Logan, W. B., Dirt: The ecstatic skin of the earth. 1995 ISBN 1-57322-004-3
  • Faulkner, William. Plowman's Folly. New York, Grosset & Dunlap. 1943. ISBN 0-933280-51-3
  • Jenny, Hans, Factors of Soil Formation: A System of Quantitative Pedology 1941
  • Why Study Soils?
  • Soil notes
  • Photographs of sand boils.
  • Oregon State University's Soils (wiki)
  • Soil-Net.com A free schools-age educational site teaching about soil and its importance.
  • LandIS Soils Data for England and Wales a pay source for GIS data on the soils of England and Wales and soils data source; they charge a handling fee to researchers.
  • LandIS Free Soilscapes Viewer Free interactive viewer for the Soils of England and Wales
  • Geo-technological Research Paper, IIT Kanpur, Dr P P Vitkar - Strip footing on weak clay stabilized with a granular pile http://rparticle.web-p.cisti.nrc.ca/rparticle/AbstractTemplateServlet?journal=cgj&volume=15&year=1978&issue=4&msno=t78-066&calyLang=eng
  • Mann, Charles C.: " Our good earth" National Geographic Magazine September 2008

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