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Soekarno-Hatta International Airport

Soekarno-Hatta International Airport (Bandar Udara Internasional Soekarno-Hatta) is the main airport serving the greater Jakarta area on the island of Java, Indonesia. The airport is named after the first President of Indonesia, Soekarno, and the first vice-president, Mohammad Hatta. The airport is often called Cengkareng by Indonesians. The airport's IATA code, CGK, originates from the name of theCengkareng locality, a district situated to the northwest of the city.

Located about 20 km west of Jakarta, in Tangerang Regency, Banten, Soekarno-Hatta airport began to operate in 1985, replacing the former Kemayoran Airport (domestic flights) in Central Jakarta, and Halim Perdanakusuma International Airport in East Jakarta. Kemayoran Airport had since closed. Halim Perdanakusuma is still operating, serving mostly charters and military flights. Terminal 2 was opened in 1992.

The land area of the airport is 18 km². It has two independent parallel runways separated 2,400 m connected by two cross taxiways. There are two main terminal buildings: Terminal 1 is for all domestic airlines except for flights operated by Garuda Indonesia and Merpati Nusantara Airlines, and Terminal 2 serves all international flights as well as all domestic flights by Garuda and Merpati Nusantara Airlines.

Each terminal building is separated into 3 concourses. Terminal 1A, 1B, and 1C are used for (mostly) domestic flights by Indonesian airlines. Terminal 1A served flights by Lion Air, Wings Air and Indonesia AirAsia.

Terminal 2D and 2E are used to serve all international flights by international airlines. Terminal 2D are for all international airlines served by PT Jasa Angkasa Semesta, one of the ground handlers in the airport. Terminal 2E are for all international airlines served by Garuda, including all international flights of Garuda Merpati. Terminal 2F are for Garuda Indonesia and Merpati Nusantara Airlines domestic flights.

The airport was designed by Paul Andreu, a French architect who also designed Charles de Gaulle International Airport in Paris. One of the major characteristics of Soekarno-Hatta airport is the incorporation of the local vernacular architecture into the design, and the presence of tropical gardens in between the waiting lounges. However, due to poor maintenance, its not too strategic location, and lack of budget, the airport is inferior to many international airports in the region. However, Soekarno-Hatta International Airport was noted for its beautiful landscaping: the airport was awarded the 1995 Aga Khan Award for Architecture.

Soekarno-Hatta International Airport has 150 check-in counters, 30 baggage carousels and 42 gates. Each sub-terminal has 25 check-in counters, 5 baggage carrousels and 7 gates.

Angkasa Pura II is currently planning to build a new terminal with modern design features. Terminal 3 is being built for low-cost airlines, and already serves hajj flights and transnational migrant laborers. There is a masterplan to make 5 passenger terminals + 1 hajj terminal and 4 runways. In 2009 the airport will be connected to Manggarai Station (future Jakarta central station) by a railway. To finance the expansion, the airport is collecting an Airport Improvement Fee of IDR 100,000 ($9 USD/8 Euro) for each international passenger and IDR 30,000 for each domestic passenger.

In May 2008, ForbesTraveller.com recognized Soekarno-Hatta International Airport as the 6th most punctual airport in the world with 86.3% of its flights departing on time, while 72.3% arriving ontime.

Soekarno-Hatta International Airport was the 35th busiest airport in 2004-2006, according to Airliners World magazine.

History

Between 1928–1974, the Kemayoran Airfield intended for domestic flights was considered too close to an Indonesian military airfield, Halim Perdanakusuma. The civil airspace in the area became narrow, while air traffic increased rapidly, which risked international air traffic. In 1969, a Senior Communication Officers meeting in Bangkok expressed this concern.

In the early 1970s, with the help of USAID, eight potential locations were analyzed for a new international airport, namely Kemayoran, Malaka, Babakan, Jonggol, Halim, Curug, South Tangerang and North Tangerang. Finally, the North Tangerang airspace was chosen and it was also noted that Jonggol could be used as an alternative airfield. Meanwhile the Indonesian government started to upgrade the Halim Perdanakusumah airfield to be used for domestic flights.

Between 1974–1975, a Canadian consultant consortium consisting of Aviation Planning Services Ltd., ACRESS International Ltd., and Searle Wilbee Rowland (SWR), won a bid for the new airport feasibility project. The feasibility study started on 20 February 1974 with a total cost of 1 million Canadian Dollars. The one-year project proceed with an Indonesian partner represented by PT Konavi. By the end of March 1975, the study revealed a plan to build three inline runways, a perforated road, three international terminal buildings, three domestic buildings and one building for Hajj flights. Three stores for the domestic terminals would be built between 1975–1981 with a cost of US$ 465 million and one domestic terminal including an apron from 1982–1985 with a cost of US$ 126 million. A new terminal project, named the Jakarta International Airport Cengkareng (code: JIA-C), began.

Project Phases

1975 – 1977 To dispense the land and also set up the province border was time needed. Schipol, Amsterdam was asked for opinion which according to them is rather expensive and over design. The cost raised up high because of using decentralization system. The Centralization system was a suitable one.

The Team decided on a decentralization system like the one used at Orly West Airfield, Lyon Satolas,, Langen-Hagen-Hanover and Kansas City Airport module system was adopted because it is simple and effective.

12 November 1976
The building project tender was won by the French Aeroport de Paris.

18 May 1977
The Final contract design was agreed on by the Indonesian Government and Aeroport de Paris with a fixed cost of about 22,323,203 French francs and Rp. 177,156,000 equivalent to 2,100,000 francs. The work was scheduled to take 18 months. The government appointed PT. Konavi as the local partner.

The result was:
• 2 inline runways including taxiways
• Perforate roads: 1 at the east, another at the west for airport services. The west was closed to public use.
• 3 terminals which can accommodate 3 million passengers per year.
• 1 module for international flights and 2 for domestic.
• An Airport inside a garden was selected as an image.

20 May 1980
A four year contract was signed. Sainraptet Brice, SAE, Colas together with PT. Waskita Karya as the developer. Ir. Karno Barkah MSc. was appointed the JIA-C Project Director, responsible for the airport's construction.

1 December 1980
The Indonesian government signed a contract for Rp. 384,8 billion with developers. The structure cost would be: Rp. 140,450,513,000 from APBN (national budget), 1,223,457 francs donated by France and US$ 15,898,251 from the USA.

1 December 1984
The airport structure was complete.

1 May 1985
The second terminal was started and launched on 11 May 1992.

Phase Year Description
Phase 1 1985 Built of Terminal 1 that can handles 9 million passengers per annum
Phase 2 1992 Built of Terminal 2 that can handles 18 million passengers per annum
Phase 3 2008 Built of Terminal 3 phase 1 that can handles 22 million passengers per annum
Not fixed Fully built of Terminal 3 that can handles 38 million passengers per annum
Phase 4 Not fixed Built of Terminal 4

Volume of Passengers

This table was based on data from the Airport Council International organization. These statistics are from the movements of passengers, freight and aircraft in CGK.

Year Passenger
Movements
Air-freight
(tons)
Aircraft
Movements
2001 11,818,047 281,765 123,540
2002 14,830,994 306,252 144,765
2003 19,702,902 310,131 186,695
2004 26,083,267 322,582 233,501
2005 27,947,482 336,113 241,846
2006 30,863,806 384,050 250,303

Terminals

Terminal 1

Terminal 1 is the first terminal of Soekarno-Hatta International Airport. It was finished on 1985. It is located on the opposite of Terminal 2 which is on the south site. It operates domestic flights except Garuda Indonesia and Merpati Nusantara Airlines as they operate their domestic flights in Terminal 2. This terminal has 3 sub-terminal. Each sub-terminal has 25 check-in counters, 5 baggage carousels and 7 gates. It has the capacity of handling 9 million passengers per annum. The gates in Terminal 1 has alphabet prefix of A, B and C. The gates are A1-A7, B1-B7 and C1-C7.

Terminal 2

Terminal 2 is the second terminal of Soekarno-Hatta International Airport. It was finished on 1992. It is located on the opposite of Terminal 1 which is on the north site. It operates international flights as well as domestic flights of Garuda Indonesia and Merpati Nusantara Airlines only. Terminal 2 has 3 sub-terminals. Each sub-terminal has 25 check-in counters, 5 baggage carousels and 7 gates. It has the capacity of handling 9 million passengers per annum. The gates in Terminal 2 has alphabet prefix of D, E and F. The gates are D1-D7, E1-E7 and F1-F7.

Terminal 3

Terminal 3 plans to operate low-cost carriers. The terminal would be different in design from Terminal 1 and 2. It would also be able to operate Airbus A380. It is located opposite of Terminal 4 and on the east side of Terminal 2 which still on the north site. Phase I will be finished in early December 2008.

Terminal 3 is going to have 5 piers, and each pier has a capacity of 4 million. After Terminal 3 is built, the capacity of Soekarno-Hatta International Airport will be 38 million passengers from currently 18 million.

Terminal 3 Phase I (Pier 1) is currently under construction. When it is completed, Terminal 3 would be dedicated for low cost carriers and A380. Terminal 3 Phase I is under construction and will be finished in early December 2008. Rendering can be found here Currently Terminal 3 serves hajj pilgrimage flights and transnational migrant laborers.

In the newest masterplan, the airport will have 2 phases of development. Phase 1 development is to build the Terminal 3 and lengthen Runway 2 to 4,000 m. Phase 2 development is to build Terminal 4 and the third runway (4,000 m). A new elevated train that will connect the airport to the city is also included in the phase 1 development .

Terminal 4

Terminal 4 is on the opposite of Terminal 3. It is located opposite of Terminal 3 and on the east side of Terminal 1 which still on the south site. It will be on phase 4 or Phase 2 Development.

Airlines and destinations

The following airlines operate from (Jakarta) Soekarno-Hatta International Airport (as of July 2008):

Passenger Terminals

Airlines that operates flights in and out of Soekarno Hatta International Airport Passenger Terminals
Airlines Destinations Terminal
AirAsia

Kuala Lumpur
  • Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi

2D
Air China Beijing, Xiamen 2
Batavia Air (International) Guangzhou, Kuching 2D
Batavia Air (Domestic) Ambon, Bali, Balikpapan, Bandar Lampung, Banjarmasin, Batam, Bengkulu, Gorontalo, Jambi, Jayapura, Kendari, Kupang, Manado, Manokwari, Makassar, Mataram, Medan, Padang, Palangkaraya, Palembang, Palu, Pangkalpinang, Pekanbaru, Pontianak, Semarang, Surabaya, Tarakan, Ternate, Yogyakarta 1B
Cathay Pacific Hong Kong 2D
Cebu Pacific Manila 2D
China Airlines Hong Kong, Taipei-Taoyuan 2E
China Southern Airlines Guangzhou 2D
Emirates Airline Dubai, Kuala Lumpur 2
Etihad Airways Abu Dhabi 2E
EVA Air Taipei-Taoyuan 2D
Garuda Indonesia (Domestic) Bali, Balikpapan, Banda Aceh, Banjarmasin, Batam, Biak, Jayapura, Makassar, Manado, Mataram, Medan, Padang, Palangkaraya, Palembang, Pekanbaru, Pontianak, Semarang, Solo, Surabaya, Timika, Yogyakarta 2F
Garuda Indonesia (International) Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi, Beijing, Guangzhou, Ho Chi Minh City, Hong Kong, Jeddah, Kuala Lumpur, Perth, Riyadh, Seoul-Incheon, Shanghai-Pudong, Singapore, Tokyo-Narita 2E
Indonesia AirAsia (Domestic) Bali, Balikpapan, Batam, Medan, Padang, Yogyakarta, Surabaya, Makassar 1C
Indonesia AirAsia (International) Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi, Johor Bahru, Kota Kinabalu, Kuala Lumpur, Kuching, Penang 2D
Japan Airlines Tokyo-Narita 2D
Jetstar Perth [begins October 30] 2
Kartika Airlines Baikpapan, Batam, Medan, Surabaya, Tarakan 1
KLM Royal Dutch Airlines Amsterdam, Kuala Lumpur 2E
Korean Air Seoul-Incheon 2
Kuwait Airways Kuwait, Kuala Lumpur 2
Lion Air (Domestic) Ambon, Bali, Balikpapan, Banda Aceh, Banjarmasin, Batam, Bau Bau, Bengkulu, Bima, Gorontalo, Jambi, Kaimana, Kendari, Kupang, Makassar, Manado, Mataram, Medan, Padang, Palu, Pangkal Pinang, Pekanbaru, Pontianak, Semarang, Solo, Sorong, Sumbawa, Surabaya, Tahuna, Tarakan, Tual, Yogyakarta 1A, 1C
Lion Air (International) Ho Chi Minh City, Kuala Lumpur, Singapore, Penang, Jeddah (begins mid 2009), Riyadh (begins mid 2009) 2E
Lufthansa Frankfurt, Singapore 2D
Mandala Airlines Bali, Balikpapan, Banjarmasin, Batam, Makassar, Malang, Medan, Padang, Pekanbaru, Semarang, Surabaya, Tarakan, Yogyakarta 1C
Merpati Nusantara Airlines Kuala Lumpur & domestic routes 2F
Malaysia Airlines Kuala Lumpur 2D
Philippine Airlines Manila, Singapore 2
Qatar Airways Doha, Singapore 2D
Qantas Perth [ends December 2008], Sydney 2
Royal Brunei Airlines Bandar Seri Begawan 2E
Saudi Arabian Airlines Dammam, Jeddah, Kuala Lumpur, Riyadh, Singapore 2E
Shenzhen Airlines Nanning 2
Singapore Airlines Singapore 2D
Sriwijaya Air Ambon, Bali, Balikpapan, Banda Anceh, Bandar Lampung, Banjarmasin, Batam, Bengkulu, Gorontalo, Jambi, Kendari, Kupang, Makassar, Malang, Medan, Padang, Palangkaraya, Palembang, Palu, Pangkal Pinang, Pekanbaru, Pontianak, Semarang, Solo, Surabaya, Tanjung Pandan, Tanjung Pinang, Tarakan 1B
Thai Airways International Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi 2D
Valuair Singapore 2D
Viva Macau Macau 2
Wings Air Bali, Fak Fak, Luwuk, Manado, Mataram, Medan, Palembang, Pekanbaru, Sorong, Surabaya, Ternate, Solo, Yogyakarta 1
Yemenia Dubai, Kuala Lumpur, Sana’a 2

Cargo carriers

Airport Facilities

Soekarno-Hatta International provides many facilities for the passengers' convenience and during transit. Some of the facilities it provides are:

  • Automated teller machines (ATM).
  • Bank and bureau de change.
  • GMF AeroAsia's hangers
  • Postal and Telecommunication service.
  • Internet cafe.
  • Medical Care Clinic.
  • Tourist information
  • Hotel and taxi booking facilities.
  • Transit hotel.
  • Lost and found
  • Numerous shops and galleries at both terminals including a duty-free, gift shop, newsagents and book shops.
  • Prayer rooms.

Before first security check (before check in counters) the airport has many foods and beverages counters spread along the area, including A&W, McDonalds, and many more.

Disabled passengers traveling though CGK have many facilities ready for them. Both terminals have toilets specially designed for the disabled and elevators. Airlines if told in advance can provide wheelchairs for disabled passengers.

The airport was designed to resemble the traditional Javanese house called Rumah Joglo and it was combined with a beautifully maintained garden located in every boarding area inside the airport.

Lounges

There are four first and business Lounges at the Transit Lounge in the departure area. Jasa Angkasa Semesta (JAS) Lounge, available for first and business class passengers of Cathay Pacific, Qantas, Lufthansa, Eva Air, Saudi Arabian Airlines and Singapore Airlines.

Pura Indah Lounge, available for first and business class passengers of Singapore Airlines, KLM, Malaysia Airlines, Cathay Pacific and China Airlines.

The new Garuda Indonesia lounge is available for GA's business class passengers only, as well as GECC cardholder. This lounge is the most comprehensive lounge facility at the airport, including meeting room, shower facilities, quiet room and many more.

Beside these primary lounges, there are also other lounges that can be used as complimentary from many banks for their cardholders. Cafes can be found as well, including Starbucks.

Ground Transportation

Inter-terminal transportation

Soekarno-Hatta International Airport provides free shuttle bus which connects Terminal 1 and 2.

Bus

Currently a DAMRI Shuttle Bus route links CGK to Rawamangun, Blok M, Gambir Station, Bekasi, Depok, Lebak Bulus, Tanjung Priok, Kemayoran, Kampung Rambutan, Pasar Minggu, Serang, Merak, Cikarang and Bogor. Nowadays Primajasa also served route Bandung-Seokarno Hatta Airport.

Car

Depending on traffic, Soekarno-Hatta is a 30 minutes drive from Jakarta's city center via Sedyatmo Toll Road. CGK provides parking lots however passengers should be noted that these parking lots are often over capacity.

Taxi and Limousine

Taxis are provided and is about 30 to 45 minutes into center city Jakarta. Car rental is provided by Avis, Bluebird, Goldenbird and Europcar.

Rail

PT RaiLink, subsidiary of PT KA plans to connect Soekarno-Hatta International Airport to Manggarai Station by train service. The elevated train service construction started in March 2008 and finished in June 2009.

It is strongly recommended that you allow at least one hour to get to the airport from central Jakarta. If you are leaving the city after 4pm on any day, but especially a Friday, allow 90 minutes. Arriving into Jakarta from other cities you should plan to arrive after 9am so that you miss the heavy traffic. Morning commute from airport to the city can be as much as 2 to 3 hours depending on rain, inundation, incidents, roadworks or the toll operators randomly changing the payment methods or on/off ramp configurations. Furthermore, there is only one toll road servicing the airport, and as such you could miss your flight or be unavoidably delayed if not taking all these things into consideration.

Problems

This airport has experienced many problems. In terminal 1 (domestic), the airport often exceeds its capacity. This forces passengers to stand while waiting for their departure time. Currently the airport serves over 30 million passengers per annum whereas it was only designed for 18 million passengers per annum. In both terminals, some of the restrooms are in very poor condition.

The most recent problem is flooding. In recent years two cases of flooding stranded thousands of passengers at the airport. The only road to the airport got flooded so no vehicles can get through the tollway, with exceptions such as trucks and buses. Right now, there is a solution to this problem that is being researched by PT Jasa Marga Tbk.. The solution is to build a bridge over the last flood's water level so that the tollway will not be flooded again.

It seems that the 'bridge' project is now a dyke project. In June 2008 Jakarta was again threatened by seasonal tidal floods. Weather forecasters were predicting the worst tidal floods in 180 years. However only minor flooding was seen and the partly completed barriers seems to have some impact on keeping the road open.

At this stage (June 2008) the road seems to be some 2 metres below the top of the barrier, not very comforting at all. One wonders if the planners have decided that the 'one in a hundred years' floods, of which Jakarta has had at least 3 in the past 10 years, will not come again.

Areas further inland from the airport reported flooding at least 1 metre higher than ever before and many low laying homes were flooded almost to the ceiling. Most of this internal flooding (only 5 km from the airport) seems to be the result of unchecked residential development where there has been scant regard for the impact on existing areas and certainly without any improvements to the infrastructure.

Pictures

References

External links


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