In 1928, Baumann became editor-in-chief of the Zeitschrift für Ethnologie, Berlin, a post which he hold until 1941. During the Third Reich, he was active as a government adviser, working on the eventual restoration of German colonies in Africa. After the war, he continued to work as a government adviser.
Baumann was Professor of African Studies and Social Anthropology in Vienna and Munich. He retired in 1972, and returned to Angola, to continue the work on the material he had collected two decades earlier. Baumann fell ill with Malaria, and died within hours of his transfer to Munich from a Lisbon hospital.
László Vajda was his pupil. However, Vajda rejected the main opus of Baumann Die Völker Afrikas und ihre traditionellen Kulturen (published posthumously), because of the numerous errors it contained, and withdrew his name from the article he had authored for the work.