The Gry Puzzle is a popular puzzle that asks for the third English word, other than "angry" and "hungry," that ends with the letters "-gry." Aside from words derived from "angry" and "hungry," there is no stand-alone word ending in "-gry" that is in current usage.
Both Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, Inc., 2002, ISBN 0-87779-201-1) and the Oxford English Dictionary, Second Edition (Oxford University Press, 1989, ISBN 0-19-861186-2) contain the compound word "aggry bead." To find a third word ending in -gry that is not part of a phrase, you must turn to archaic, obsolete, or uncommon words, or personal or place names, a
of which is given at the end of this article.
This puzzle has no good answer, yet it has become the most frequently asked word puzzle.
Puzzle as quest
This topic is a source of lively interest, both to lovers of word puzzles and lovers of words. Intriguingly, there are members of the latter group who have little or no interest in the puzzle, per se; the challenge is in the list (of words). For both groups, much of the appeal lies in the quest, either to trace the origin of the puzzle or compile a complete list of words ending in -gry.
Merriam-Webster, publishers of the leading American dictionaries, first heard of this puzzle in a letter dated March 17, 1975, from Patricia Lasker of Brooklyn, New York. Lasker says her plant manager heard the question on a quiz show. Since that time Merriam-Webster has received about four letters each year asking the question.
This puzzle first appears in print in Anita Richterman's in Newsday on April 29, 1975. One "M.Z." from Wantagh states that the problem was asked on a TV quiz program. Richterman states that she asked a learned professor of English for help when she first received the inquiry, and he did not respond for over a month. So the quiz show probably occurred in March.
In Anita Richterman's on May 9, 1975, several correspondents reported that they had heard the puzzle on the Bob Grant radio talk show on WMCA in New York City. As this is not a TV quiz show, this may not be the origin of the puzzle. The majority of readers gave the answer "gry," one of the obsolete words
listed at the end of this article. It is unclear whether this was the answer given on the Grant show.
Ralph G. Beaman in the "Kickshaws" column in Word Ways for February 1976 reports that the Delaware Valley was mystified during the fall of 1975 by the question. By this time the puzzle seems to have mutated to a form in which the missing word is an adjective that describes the state of the world.
Some people remember a different version of this puzzle dating it back before 1975. For example, someone named "Rush Elkins" emailed the editors of yourDictionary with this report:
- I first heard the "gry" riddle posed in slightly different form in 1969 or 1970. I was then in graduate school at University of Florida and in the habit of meeting with a group of friends every Wednesday evening for dinner, drinks, and conversation. One of those evenings, someone challenged the group to find three common English words containing the letter combination "gry." I'm sure that there was no stipulation on the placement of "gry" because I recall someone suggesting that it might occur at the boundary of a compound word. (That turns out to lead nowhere.)
- A year or two later, I encountered the word "gryphon" in a book, had one of those aha! experiences, and presented my find at the next meeting as a sort of trophy. Although not exactly an everyday sort of word, "gryphon" appears in most dictionaries and is understood by most literate English readers.
If these memories are accurate, then perhaps in 1975 a subtle flaw was introduced into an otherwise commonplace word puzzle. Instead of asking for three words that contain "gry," the flawed version asks for three words that end in "gry." Presumably the person who asked the question did not know the answer and, in repeating the question, simply misstated it. Since the flawed version has no good answer, an explosion of searching followed.
There are three words in the English language that end in the letters g-r-y. Two are "hungry" and "angry." Everyone knows what the third word means, and everyone uses it every day. What is the third word?
- This version only works when spoken: There are three words in English that end in "gree." The first two are "angry" and "hungry," and if you've listened closely, you'll agree that I've already told you the third one.
Here is another spoken version: There are at least three words in the English language that end in "g" or "y." One of them is "hungry," and another one is "angry." There is a third word, a short one, which you probably say every day. If you are listening carefully to everything I say, you just heard me say it three times. What is it?
- The answer is "energy." The riddle says that the word ends in the letters g-r-y; it says nothing about the order of the letters.
There are three words in the English language that end in "gry." Two words that end in "gry" are "hungry" and "angry." Everyone knows what the third word means, and everyone uses them every day. If you listened very carefully, I have already stated to you what the third word is. The three words that solve this riddle are...?
- The answer is "say." This version depends upon the listener confusing the spoken word "or" and the spoken letter "r."
This version is a play on the use-mention ambiguity exploited by other versions: I know two words that end in "gry." Neither one is angry or hungry. What are they?
- The answer is the three-word sentence "I am hungry." This version asks for three words that end in "gry," not three words each of which end in "gry."
Here is a version invented by Frank Rubin on December 4, 2003: Give me three English words, commonly spoken, ending in g-r-y.
- The answer is "angry" and "hungry." Since these are words, they are not capable of being angry or hungry.
Here is another version that works better when spoken. There are three words in the English language that end g-r-y. One is angry and another is hungry. The third word is something that "everyone" uses. If you have listened carefully, I have already told you what it is.
- There are many possible answers, such as "Beg for mercy," or "Bring your money."
- The answer is "every," and the logic is as follows: There are three words, ending "g," "r," and "y." The first, another word for "angry," is "fuming," which ends in "g." The second, "hungry," at least when personified, is "eager" which ends in "r." Similarly, the third word is "every," which ends in "y" and is clearly used by the word "everyone."
The remaining versions are a form of meta-puzzle, in the sense that they make no use of the actual letters "gry" themselves, which therefore are a red herring. The red herring only works because there is another puzzle that does use these letters (even though that puzzle has no good answer).
- Think of words ending in "gry." Angry and hungry are two of them. There are only three words in "the English language." What is the third word? The word is something that everyone uses everyday. If you have listened carefully, I have already told you what it is.
Angry and hungry are two words in the English language that end in "gry." "What" is the third word. The word is something that everyone uses everyday. If you have listened carefully, I have already told you what it is.
- The answer to this version is "language" -- the third word in the phrase "the English language." There are quotation marks needed to make this answer correct when the puzzle is printed, but they give away the trick.
There are three words in the English language that end with "gry." Two of these are "angry" and "hungry." The third word is a very common word, and you use it often. If you have read what I have told you, you will see that I have given you the third word. What is the third word? Think very carefully.
- The answer is "what." But again, the quotation marks spoil the puzzle when it is printed.
This version is usually stated with the word "one" capitalized, which is a hint at the solution: There are three words in the English language that end in "gry." The first ONE is "hungry," the second is "angry," and the third everyONE uses everyday. If you have read this carefully I have given a clue.
- The answer is "three," the third word in the paragraph. The rest of the paragraph is a red herring.
- The answer is supposedly "one," which is the third "one." There are three references to the answer "one." The first and third are both the word "one," while the second is the word "first."
Words and names that end in -gry
A list of names and words ending in -gry, many of which are obsolete, archaic, or simply uncommon.
Reference abbreviations, in brackets, are explained below under Sources consulted.
- affect-hungry [OED (see "sado-masochism")]
- aggry [OED:1:182; W2; W3]
- agry / Agry:
- Agry [OED (see "snappily")]
- Agry [GNS]
- Agry Dagh (Mount Agry) [EB/11:15:682 (as "Agry-dagh"); Partridge/2 (as "Agry Dagh"); Stieler:49 R18 and Stieler/Index:3 (as "Agry-Dag")]
- ahungry [OED:1:194; FW; W2]
- air-hungry [OED (see "Tel Avivian")]
- angry [OED; FW; W2; W3]
- anhungry [OED:1:332; W2]
- Badagry [Johnston; EB/11; GNS; OED (see "Dahoman")]
- Bagry [GNS]
- Ballingry [Bartholomew:40; CLG:151; GNS; RD:164, pl.49]
- begry [OED:1:770,767]
- Bellangry [GNS]
- Beregovyye Langry [GNS]
- bewgry [OED:1:1160]
- Bol’shiye Tugry (GNS]
- "boongry maugry" [Partridge/2] — created by Partridge, for purposes of satire, from bongre maugre, willy-nilly; cf. maugry
- boroughmongry [OED (see "boroughmonger")]
- bowgry [OED:1:1160]
- braggry [OED:1:1047]
- Bugry — cf. Chistyye Bugry, Golyye Bugry, Peschanyye Bugry [GNS; Times/IG]
- Bungry — see Hungry Bungry
- Chagry [GNS]
- Changry [GNS]
- Chistyye Bugry [GNS]
- Chockpugry [Worcester]
- Cogry [BBC]
- cony-gry [OED:2:956]
- conyngry [OED:2:956]
- cottagry [OED (see "cottagery")]
- croftangry / Croftangry:
- croftangry [OED (see "way")]
- Croftangry — Mr. Chrystal Croftangry, fictitious editor of The Chronicles of Canongate, by Sir Walter Scott, 1827–28. The Chronicles of Canongate is an inclusive title for Scott's novels, The Highland Widow, The Two Drovers, and The Fair Maid of Perth, to which the author attached the fiction that they were written by Mr. Chrystal Croftangry, who draws on the recollections of his old friend, Mrs. Bethune Baliol, a resident in the Canongate, Edinburgh. Mr. Croftangry's own story, notable among Scott's shorter sketches, forms an introduction to the Chronicles. [Barnhart:1:1134; Freeman/1:101; Freeman/2:109; OCEL/5:241,197,461; Scott:2:234-329; Walsh:110] — "a pseudonym of Sir Walter Scott; the name of the imaginary editor of his "Chronicles of the Canongate." [Wheeler:88]
- de Pélegry — see Pélegry
- diamond-hungry [OED (see "Lorelei")]
- dog-hungry [W2]
- dogge-hungry [OED (see "canine")]
- Dygry [GNS]
- Dshagry [Stieler]
- Džagry [Andrees:43 (141 L 7)]
- Dzhagry [GNS; OSN/42:2:325; Times/7:61 (44 G8); Times/IG:233 (44 G8)]
- eard-hungry [CED (see "yird"); CSD]
- Echanuggry [Century:103-104, on inset map, Key 104 M 2]
- Égry [DNCF:376; France(?); GNSl; OSN/83:1:335; Times/IG:239
- euer-angry [OED (see "ever")]
- ever-angry [W2]
- fenegry [OED (see "fenugreek")]
- fire-angry [W2]
- Gagry — cf. Novyye Gagry [EB/11; GNS]
- Garrynagry [GNS]
- girl-hungry [OED (see "girl")]
- Golyye Bugry [GNS]
- gonagry [OED (see "gonagra")]
- gry / Gry / GRY:
- gry (from Latin gry) [OED:4/2:475; W2]
- gry (from Romany grai) [W2]
- Gry (given name: Gry Bagøien, alias Gry, a female singer from Denmark) [Wiki]
- gry / GRY acronyms, initialisms, and abbreviations:
- GRY — Granada, Spain (airport symbol) [AIAD:1403]
- gry — abbr. gray [ADA]
- GRY — Gray Drug Stores, Inc. (New York Stock Exchange delisted symbol) [AIAD:1403]
- GRY — abbr. all cap. Grayling Air Service, Grayling, Alaska (TAH [The Airline Handbook] code) [TAH:281]
- GRY — abbr. Greymouth, New Zealand (seismograph station code, United States Geological Survey); closed [AIAD:1403; Poppe]
- GRY — abbr. Greystoke Exploration (Vancouver Stock Exchange symbol [AIAD:1403]
- GRY — abbr. all cap. Grimsey, Iceland (airport symbol) [AIAD:1403; OAG]
- haegry [EDD (see "hagery")]
- half-angry [W2]
- hangry [OED:1:329]
- heart-angry [W2]
- heart-hungry [W2]
- higry pigry [OED:5/1:285]
- hogry [EDD (see "huggerie"); CSD]
- hogrymogry [EDD (see "huggerie"); CSD (as "hogry-mogry")]
- hongry [OED:5/1:459; EDD:3:282]
- hound-hungry [OED (see "hound")]
- houngry [OED (see "minx")]
- huggrymuggry [EDD (see "huggerie"); CSD (as "huggry-muggry")]
- hund-hungry [OED (see "hound")]
- hungry [OED; FW; W2; W3]
- Hungry Bungry [DI]
- hwngry [OED (see "quart")]
- "igry" [Partridge/2] — from "... igry slov of the Slavs." — created by Partridge for purposes of satire
- iggry [OED]
- Jagry [EB/11:23-874 (II. D4)]
- jingry [OED]
- job-hungry [OED (see "gadget")]
- Kagry [GNS]
- kaingry [EDD (see "caingy")]
- Kiegry [GNS]
- land-hungry [OED; W2]
- Langry — cf. Beregovyye Langry, Novyye Langry [GNS; Times/7; Times/IG]
- leather-hungry [OED]
- ledderhungry [OED (see "leather")]
- life-hungry [OED (see "music")]
- Lisnagry [Bartholomew:489; GNS]
- Longry [GNS]
- losengry [OED (see "losengery")]
- MacLoingry — surname, of Irish origin; e.g., Flaithbhertach MacLoingry, bishop of Clonmacnois (1038) [Cotton, Phillips:613]
- mad-angry [OED:6/2:14]
- mad-hungry [OED:6/2:14]
- magry [OED:6/2:36, 6/2:247-48]
- malgry [OED:6/2:247]
- Malyye Tugry [GNS]
- man-hungry [OED]
- managry [OED (see "managery")]
- mannagry [OED (see "managery")]
- Margry [Indians (see "Pierre Margry" in bibliog., v.2, p.1204)]
- maugry [OED:6/2:247-48]
- mawgry [OED:6/2:247]
- meagry [OED:6/2:267]
- meat-hungry [W2; OED (see "meat")]
- Megry [GNS]
- menagry [OED (see "managery")]
- messagry [OED]
- music-hungry [OED (see "music")]
- Myagry [GNS]
- nangry [OED]
- Novyye Gagry [GNS]
- Novyye Langry [GNS]
- "nugry" / Nugry:
- "nugry" — regular readers of the Usenet newsgroup rec.puzzles coined this word to describe a (presumably) new reader who posts a frequently asked question
- Nugry [GNS]
- overangry [RH1; RH2]
- Pélegry [CE (in main index as "Raymond de Pélegry")]
- Peschanyye Bugry [GNS]
- Peshungry [GNS]
- pigry — see higry pigry
- Pingry [Bio-Base; HPS:293-94, 120-21]
- Podagry [OED; W2 (below the line)]
- Pongry [Andree (Supplement, p.572)]
- pottingry [OED:7/2:1195; Jamieson:3:532]
- Povengry [GNS]
- power-hungry [OED (see "power")]
- profit-hungry [OED (see "profit")]
- puggry [OED:8/1:1573; FW; W2]
- pugry [OED:8/1:1574]
- red-angry [OED (see "sanguineous")]
- rungry [EDD:5:188]
- scavengry [OED (in 1715 quote under "scavengery")]
- Schtschigry [GNS; LG/1:2045; OSN:97]
- Seagry — cf. Upper Seagry [EB/11:28:698a; GNS; Times/IG:762]
- Ségry [Andrees:152 (87/88 B 3); GNS; Johnston]
- self-angry [W2]
- selfe-angry [OED (see "self-")]
- Semibugry [GNS]
- sensation-hungry [OED (see "sensation")]
- sex-angry [OED (see "sex")]
- sex-hungry [OED (see "cave")]
- Shchegry [GNS]
- Shchigry [CLG:1747; GNS; Johnson:594; OSN:97,206; Times/7:185,pl.45]
- shiggry [EDD]
- Shtchigry [LG/1:2045; LG/2:1701]
- Shtshigry [Lipp]
- sight-hungry [OED (see "sight")]
- Sillegry [GNS]
- skugry [OED:9/2:156, 9/1:297; Jamieson:4:266]
- Skugry [GNS]
- Ssemibugry [GNS]
- Suchigry [GNS]
- Sygry [Andree]
- Tangry [France; GNS]
- Tchangry [Johnson:594; LG/1:435,1117]
- Tchigry [Johnson:594]
- tear-angry [W2]
- th'angry [OED (see "shot-free")]
- tike-hungry [CSD]
- tingry / Tingry:
- tingry [OED (see "parquet")]
- Tingry [France; EB/11 (under "Princesse de Tingry"); GNS]
- toggry [Simmonds (as "Toggry"; but all entries are capitalized)]
- Tugry — cf. Bol’shiye Tugry, Malyye Tugry [GNS]
- "ugry" / Ugry:
- "ugry" [Partridge/2] — from "... white ugry of history." — created by Partridge for purposes of satire — probably a reference to "Ugri Bielii, tribe : see Khazars, race." [EB/11:15:774b, 23:525a, 23:883d]
- Ugry [GNS]
- ulgry — modern form of Vlgrie (word form not actually found, but the existence of which is inferred), an animal (not specifically identified): "a coat made of ulgry's hair...." [Partridge/1 (as "ulgry"); Scheetz (as "ulgry" and "Vlgrie"); Smith:24-25 (as "Vlgrie" and "Vlgries")]
- unangry [OED; W2]
- Ungry [GNS]
- Upper Seagry [GNS]
- vergry [OED:12/1:123]
- Vigry [CLG:2090]
- vngry [OED (see "wretch")]
- Wągry [GNS]
- war-hungry [OED (see "war")]
- Wegry [GNS]
- Węgry [GNS]
- WGRY — all cap. call letters of a radio station in Grayling, Michigan. [...]
- Wigry [CLG:2090; GNS; NAP:xxxix; Times/7:220, pl.62; WA:948]
- wind-hungry [W2]
- Yagry [GNS]
- yeard-hungry [CED (see "yird")]
- yerd-hungry [CED (see "yird"); OED]
- yird-hungry [CED (see "yird")]
- Ymagry [OED:1:1009 (col. 3, 1st "boss" verb), (variant of "imagery")]
- Zygry [GNS]
Specialized word-books employed as finding aids include A. F. Brown's Normal and Reverse English Word List, in 8 volumes (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, 1963), Martin Lehnert's Reverse Dictionary of Present-Day English (Leipzig: Verlag Enzyklopädie, 1971), and Richard C. Herbst's Herbst's Backword Dictionary for Puzzled People (New York: Alamo Publishing Company, 1979).
- ADA = Jone, David J., comp. The Australian Dictionary of Acronyms and Abbreviations, 2nd ed. Leura, New South Wales, Australia: Second Back Row Press Pty. Ltd., 1981.
- AIAD = Acronyms, Initialisms & Abbreviations Dictionary: A Guide to More Than 500,000 Acronyms, Initialisms, Abbreviations, Contractions, Alphabetic Symbols, and Similar Condensed Appellations, 15th Edition, 1991. Volume 1, Part 2: G-O. Edited by Jennifer Mossman. Detroit, New York, London: Gale Research Inc., 1990.
- Andree, Richard. Andrees Handatlas (index volume). 1925.
- Andrees Allgemeiner Handatlas in 139 Haupt- und 161 Nebenkarten nebst vollständigen alphabetischen Namenverzeichnis. Fünfte, völlig neubearbeitete und vermehrt Auflage. Jubiläumsausgabe. Herausgegeben von A. Scobel. Beilfeld und Leipzig: Verlag von Velhagen & Klasing, 1907.
- Barnhart = The New Century Cyclopedia of Names. Edited by Clarence L. Barnhart. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, Inc., 1954. [Form: Barnhart:volume:page]
- Bartholomew, John. Gazetteer of the British Isles: Statistical and Topographical. 1887.
- BBC = BBC Pronouncing Dictionary of English Names.
- Bio-Base. (Microfiche.) Detroit: Gale Research Company. 1980.
- CE = Catholic Encyclopedia. 1907.
- CED = Chambers English Dictionary. 1988.
- Century = "India, Northern Part." The Century Atlas of the World. 1897, 1898.
- CLG = The Colombia Lippincott Gazetteer of the World. L. E. Seltzer, ed. 1952.
- Cotton, Henry. Fasti Ecclesiæ Hibernicæ: The Succession of the Prelates and Members of the Cathedral Bodies in Ireland. 5 volumes. Dublin: Hodges and Smith, 1849. Volume examined: Volume III: The Province of Ulster.
- CSD = Chambers Scots Dictionary. 1971 reprint of 1911 edition.
- DI = The Daily Illini [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign], Friday, 30 January 1976, p. 27; Tuesday, 3 February 1976, p. 18; Wednesday, 4 February 1976, p. 14; Wednesday, 11 February 1976, p. 16; Friday, 13 February 1976, p. 37; Wednesday, 18 February 1976, p. 15. "Hungry Bungry" appears in a series of six advertisements for The Giraffe, a restaurant.
- DNCF = Dictionnaire National des Communes de France, 17e éd. Paris: Éditions Albin Michel, 1959.
- EB/11 = The Encyclopædia Britannica: A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, Literature and General Information, 11th ed. New York: The Encyclopædia Britannica Company, 1910-1911. [Form: EB/11:volume:page (map reference if applicable).]
- EDD = The English Dialect Dictionary. Joseph Wright, ed. 1898.
- France = Map Index of France. G.H.Q. American Expeditionary Forces. 1918.
- Freeman/1 = Freeman, William. Dictionary of Fictional Characters. Boston: The Writer, Inc., Publishers, 1963.
- Freeman/2 = Freeman, William, and Fred Urquhart. Dictionary of Fictional Characters, rev. ed. Boston: The Writer, Inc., Publishers, 1974.
- FW = Funk & Wagnalls New Standard Dictionary of the English Language. 1943.
- GNS = GEOnet Names Server (GNS), developed and maintained by the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA); the GNS database is the official repository of foreign place-name decisions approved by the U.S. Board on Geographic Names
- HPS = The Handbook of Private Schools: An Annual Descriptive Survey of Independent Education, 66th ed. 1985.
- Indians = Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. F. W. Hodge. 1912.
- Jamieson, John. An Etymological Dictionary of the Scottish Language. 1879-87.
- Johnston, Keith. Index Geographicus... 1864.
- LG/1 = Lippincott's Gazetteer of the World: A Complete Pronouncing Gazetteer or Geographical Dictionary of the World. 1888.
- LG/2 = Lippincott's New Gazetteer: ... 1906.
- Lipp = Lippincott's Pronouncing Gazetteer of the World. 1861, undated edition from late 1800s; 1902.
- NAP = Narodowy Atlas Polski. 1973-1978 [Polish language]
- OAG = Official Airline Guide, Worldwide Edition. Oak Brook, Ill.: Official Airline Guide, Inc., 1984.
- OCEL/5 = The Oxford Companion to English Literature, 5th ed. Edited by Margaret Drabble. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1985.
- OED = The Oxford English Dictionary. 1933. [Form: OED:volume/part number if applicable:page]
- OSN: U.S.S.R. Volume 6, S-T. Official Standard Names Approved by the United States Board on Geographic Names. Gazetteer #42, 2nd ed. June 1970.
- Partridge/1 = Partridge, Harry B. "Ad Memoriam Demetrii." Word Ways, 19 (August 1986): 131.
- Partridge/2 = Partridge, Harry B. "Gypsy Hobby Gry." Word Ways, 23 (February 1990): 9-11.
- Phillips, Lawrence. Dictionary of Biographical Reference. 1889.
- Poppe, Barbara B., Debbi A. Naub, and John S. Derr. Seismograph Station Codes and Characteristics. Geological Survey. Circular 791. Washington, D.C.: U. S. Department of the Interior, 1978.
- RD = The Reader's Digest Complete Atlas of the British Isles, 1st ed. 1965.
- RH1 = Random House Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged. 1966.
- RH2 = Random House Dictionary of the English Language, Second Edition Unabridged. 1987.
- Scott, [Sir] Walter. The Fair Maid of Perth and Other Chronicles of the Canongate, including The Highland Widow. Boston; New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1913. 2 volumes. [Copy examined bound in 1 volume.]
- Simmonds, P.L. Commercial Dictionary of Trade Products. 1883.
- Scheetz, George H. "Captain Smith's Vlgrie." Word Ways, 20 (May 1987): 84-86.
- Smith, John. The True Travels, Adventvres and Observations: London 1630.
- [Stieler, Adolf.] Stielers Hand-Atlas: 100 Karten in Kupferstich mit 162 Nebenkarten .... Gotha: Justus Perthes, 1907. <1925?>
- Stieler/Index = Alphabetisches Namenverzeichnis (Alphabetical Index ...) ... von Stielers Hand-Atlas .... Gotha: Justus Perthes, n.d. (238 pp.) Includes prefatory information in German, English, French, and Italian. <1925?>
- TAH = The Airline Hand Book, 1985. (9th Issue.) Ed. Paul K. Martin. Cranston, R.I.: AeroTravel Research, 1985.
- Times/7 = The Times Atlas of the World, 7th ed. 1985.
- Times/IG = The Times Index-Gazetteer of the World. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1966 (c) 1965. [Partially a reference to The Times Atlas Mid-Century Edition; partially an independent reference.]
- W2 = Webster's New International Dictionary of the English Language, Second Edition, Unabridged. 1934.
- W3 = Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged. 1961.
- WA = The World Atlas: Index-Gazetteer. Council of Ministries of the USSR, 1968.
- Walsh, William S. Heroes and Heroines of Fiction: Modern Prose and Poetry; .... Philadelphia; London: J. B. Lippincott Company, (c) 1914, 1915.
- Wheeler, William A. An Explanatory and Pronouncing Dictionary of the Noted Names of Fiction; ..., 2nd ed., rev. Boston: Ticknor and Fields, 1866.
- Wiki = Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia
- Worcester, J.E. Universal Gazetteer, Second Edition. 1823.
- Beaman, Ralph G. "Kickshaws." Word Ways, 9:1 (February 1976): 43-44. In section titled, "A Philadelphia Story," Beaman poses the question and attempts to answer it.
- Eckler, A. Ross. "-Gry Words in the OED." Word Ways, 25:4 (November 1992): 253-54.
- Francis, Darryl. "Some New -Gry Words." Word Ways, 30:3 (August 1997).
- Partridge, Harry B. "Gypsy Hobby Gry." Word Ways, 23:1 (February 1990): 9-11. A response to Scheetz's article, "In Goodly Gree," q.v.
- Pearce, Murray R. "Who's Flaithbhertach MacLoingry?" Word Ways, 23:1 (February 1990): 6-8. A response to Scheetz's article, "In Goodly Gree," q.v.
- Scheetz, George H. In "Colloquy." Word Ways, 10 (August 1977): 152. Scheetz expands on Beaman, q.v.
- Scheetz, George H. "In Goodly Gree: With Goodwill." Word Ways, 22:4 (November 1989): 195-204. The first comprehensive historical overview of the -gry puzzle, including a list of 51 words ending in -gry. Scheetz was invited to write this article by A. Ross Eckler, editor of Word Ways.