snapdragon family

snapdragon family

Family Scrophulariaceae, containing about 4,000 species of flowering plants in 190 genera, found worldwide. The family is notable for its many ornamental garden plants, including snapdragon (Antirrhinum species) and foxglove. Antirrhinum contains about 40 species native to western North America and the western Mediterranean. Other members of the family, including butter-and-eggs, are wildflowers. Flowers of the family are tubular and bilaterally symmetrical (two-lipped).

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Junonia coenia is the Common Buckeye butterfly. It is found in all parts of the United States except the northwest, and is especially common in the South, the California coast, and throughout Central America. Its habitat is open areas with low vegetation and some bare ground. The bold pattern of eyespots and white bars on the upper wing surface is distinctive in much of its range, though compare related species in the same genus. (These are Mangrove Buckeye, Junonia evarete and Tropical Buckeye, Junonia genoveva, formerly considered one species, the Smoky Buckeye, Junonia evarete.) The eyespots likely serve to startle or distract predators, especially young birds. The species has many flights throughout the year, with mostly northward migrations for the summer. Much of the northern United States is only colonized in the fall from southern populations. Some of the later broods move southwards in the fall. Common buckeyes exhibit seasonal polyphenism, the summer version of the butterfly has light yellowish ventral wings and is called "linea". The Fall morph has pink ventral wings, and is called the "rosa" morph.

Adults feed on nectar and also take fluids from mud and damp sand. Males perch on bare ground or low plants, occasionally patrolling in search of females, but they are not territorial. The female lays eggs singly on buds or the upper side of leaves. The caterpillars are solitary and feed on the foliage, flowers, and fruits of the host plant. A variety of (typically) herbaceous plants are used, including especially plants in the snapdragon family (Scrophulariaceae). These include snapdragon (Antirrhinum), toadflax (Linaria), and Gerardia. Caterpillars also feed on plants of the plantain family, such as Plantago; and the Acanthus family including ruellia (Ruellia nodiflora). Larvae feed singly. Adults and some larvae overwinter in southern areas. The pupa may not have a resting phase (diapause), as in many other butterflies.

This species and its relatives were placed formerly in the genus Precis.

The Common Buckeye was featured on the 2006 United States Postal Service 24-cent postage stamp.

In Adobe InDesign CS, a Common Buckeye was featured in the title screen and icons associated with it.

Gallery

See also

References

  • Jim P. Brock, Kenn Kaufman (2003). Butterflies of North America. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-618-15312-8.
  • Jeffrey Glassberg (1999). Butterflies through Binoculars : The East A Field Guide to the Butterflies of Eastern North America. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-510668-7.
  • James A. Scott (1986). The Butterflies of North America: A Natural History and Field Guide. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-2013-4.
  • Common buckeye on Bugguide.net
  • Butterflies of North America
  • Carolina Nature--accessed 8 May 2006

External links


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