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Seaward border of a continental shelf. The world's combined continental slope is about 200,000 mi (300,000 km) long and descends at an average angle of about 4° from the edge of the continental shelf to the beginning of the ocean basins at depths of 330–10,500 ft (100–3,200 m). The slope is most gradual off stable coasts without major rivers and is steepest off coasts with young mountain ranges and narrow continental shelves. Slopes off mountainous coastlines and narrow shelves commonly have outcrops of rock. The dominant sediments of continental slopes are muds; there are smaller amounts of sediments of sand or gravel.

Learn more about continental slope with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Encyclopedia Britannica, 2008. Encyclopedia Britannica Online.

Slope is used to describe the steepness, incline, gradient, or grade of a straight line. A higher slope value indicates a steeper incline. The slope is defined as the ratio of the "rise" divided by the "run" between two points on a line, or in other words, the ratio of the altitude change to the horizontal distance between any two points on the line. It is also always the same thing as how many rises in one run.

Using calculus, one can calculate the slope of the tangent to a curve at a point.

The concept of slope, and much of this article, applies directly to grades or gradients in geography and civil engineering.

The slope of a line in the plane containing the x and y axes is generally represented by the letter m, and is defined as the change in the y coordinate divided by the corresponding change in the x coordinate, between two distinct points on the line. This is described by the following equation:

- $m\; =\; frac\{Delta\; y\}\{Delta\; x\}.$

Given two points (x_{1}, y_{1}) and (x_{2}, y_{2}), the change in x from one to the other is x_{2} - x_{1}, while the change in y is y_{2} - y_{1}. Substituting both quantities into the above equation obtains the following:

- $m\; =\; frac\{y\_2\; -\; y\_1\}\{x\_2\; -\; x\_1\}.$

Note that the way the points are chosen on the line and their order does not matter; the slope will be the same in each case. Other curves have "accelerating" slopes and one can use calculus to determine such slopes.

- $m\; =\; frac\{Delta\; y\}\{Delta\; x\}\; =\; frac\{y\_2\; -\; y\_1\}\{x\_2\; -\; x\_1\}\; =\; frac\{8\; -\; 2\}\{13\; -\; 1\}\; =\; frac\{6\}\{12\}\; =\; frac\{1\}\{2\}.$

The slope is $textstylefrac\{1\}\{2\}\; =\; 0.5,$.

As another example, consider a line which runs through the points (4, 15) and (3, 21). Then, the slope of the line is

- $m\; =\; frac\{\; 21\; -\; 15\}\{3\; -\; 4\}\; =\; frac\{6\}\{-1\}\; =\; -6.$

The angle θ a line makes with the positive x axis is closely related to the slope m via the tangent function:

- $m\; =\; tan,theta$

- $theta\; =\; arctan,m$

Two lines are parallel if and only if their slopes are equal and they are not coincident or if they both are vertical and therefore have undefined slopes. Two lines are perpendicular if and only if the product of their slopes is -1 or one has a slope of 0 (a horizontal line) and the other has an undefined slope (a vertical line).

- Main articles: Grade (slope), Grade separation

- $mbox\{angle\}\; =\; arctan\; frac\{mbox\{slope\}\}\{100\}\; ,$

- $mbox\{slope\}\; =\; 100\; tan(mbox\{angle\}),,$

A third way is to give one unit of rise in say 10, 20, 50 or 100 horizontal units, e.g. 1:10. 1:20, 1:50 or 1:100 (etc.).

- $y\; =\; mx\; +\; b\; ,$

If the slope m of a line and a point (x_{0}, y_{0}) on the line are both known, then the equation of the line can be found using the point-slope formula:

- $y\; -\; y\_0\; =\; m(x\; -\; x\_0)\; ,.$

For example, consider a line running through the points (2, 8) and (3, 20). This line has a slope, m, of

- $frac\; \{(20\; -\; 8)\}\{(3\; -\; 2)\}\; ;\; =\; 12.\; ,$

- $y\; -\; 8\; =\; 12(x\; -\; 2)\; =\; 12x\; -\; 24\; ,$

- $y\; =\; 12x\; -\; 16.\; ,$

The slope of a linear equation in the general form:

- $ax\; +\; by\; +\; c\; =\; 0\; ,$

- $frac\; \{-a\}\{b\}.\; ;\; ,$

If we let Δx and Δy be the distances (along the x and y axes, respectively) between two points on a curve, then the slope given by the above definition,

- $m\; =\; frac\{Delta\; y\}\{Delta\; x\}$,

is the slope of a secant line to the curve. For a line, the secant between any two points is the line itself, but this is not the case for any other type of curve.

For example, the slope of the secant intersecting y = x² at (0,0) and (3,9) is m = (9 - 0) / (3 - 0) = 3 (which happens to be the slope of the tangent at, and only at, x = 1.5, a consequence of the mean value theorem).

By moving the two points closer together so that Δy and Δx decrease, the secant line more closely approximates a tangent line to the curve, and as such the slope of the secant approaches that of the tangent. Using differential calculus, we can determine the limit, or the value that Δy/Δx approaches as Δy and Δx get closer to zero; it follows that this limit is the exact slope of the tangent. If y is dependent on x, then it is sufficient to take the limit where only Δx approaches zero. Therefore, the slope of the tangent is the limit of Δy/Δx as Δx approaches zero. We call this limit the derivative.

- The gradient is a generalization of the concept of slope for functions of more than one variable.
- Slope definitions

- Interactive applet demonstrates how to calculate slope of a line

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Last updated on Tuesday September 30, 2008 at 16:07:20 PDT (GMT -0700)

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This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License.

Last updated on Tuesday September 30, 2008 at 16:07:20 PDT (GMT -0700)

View this article at Wikipedia.org - Edit this article at Wikipedia.org - Donate to the Wikimedia Foundation

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