Definitions

slateblue

X11 color names

In computing, on the X Window System, X11 color names are represented in a simple text file, which maps certain strings to RGB color values. It is shipped with every "X" installation, hence the name, and is usually located in <X11root>/lib/X11/rgb.txt

It is not known who originally compiled the list. The list shows neither a continuity in selected color values nor in color names, and many color triplets have multiple names. Despite this, graphic designers and others got used to them, making it practically impossible to introduce a more stringent and logical alias list.

The first versions of Mosaic and Netscape Navigator used the X11 colors as the basis for the Web colors list, as both were originally X applications.

Charts

These charts are not a standard set of colors to be found on any X Window system. Rather it is the standardised "X11 colors" accepted by browsers following the HTML and CSS standards. This set is cut down and rationalised, and has a few differences from a typical rgb.txt file (especially, Green is different ). RGB values shown are normalised to the range 0 to 255.

Almost the exact same color names are used in .NET Framework, in the KnownColor and Color enumerations. The only color difference is DarkSeaGreen which is defined as 8F,BC,8B (instead of 8F,BC,8F).

Color names that clash between X11 and HTML/CSS

Perhaps most unusual of the color clashes is the case of "gray." In HTML, "gray" is specifically reserved for 128,128,128. However, in X11, "gray" was assigned to 190,190,190 (close to HTML's "silver"), and had "lightgray" (211,211,211) and "darkgray" (169,169,169) counterparts. This resulted in HTML's "gray," at 128, actually being significantly darker than "darkgray," at 169.

Color name Original X11 color name HTML and CSS color name
Sample Components (red, green, blue) Sample Components (red, green, blue)
hex. dec. hex. dec.
Gray   BE BE BE 190 190 190   80 80 80 128 128 128
Green   00 FF 00 0 255 0   00 80 00 0 128 0
Maroon   B0 30 60 176 48 96   80 00 00 128 0 0
Purple   A0 20 F0 160 32 240   80 00 80 128 0 128

Color names identical between X11 and HTML/CSS

Color name Sample Components (red, green, blue)
hexadecimal decimal
AliceBlue   F0 F8 FF 240 248 255
AntiqueWhite   FA EB D7 250 235 215
Aqua   00 FF FF 0 255 255
Aquamarine   7F FF D4 127 255 212
Azure   F0 FF FF 240 255 255
Beige   F5 F5 DC 245 245 220
Bisque   FF E4 C4 255 228 196
Black   00 00 00 0 0 0
BlanchedAlmond   FF EB CD 255 235 205
Blue   00 00 FF 0 0 255
BlueViolet   8A 2B E2 138 43 226
Brown   A5 2A 2A 165 42 42
BurlyWood   DE B8 87 222 184 135
CadetBlue   5F 9E A0 95 158 160
Chartreuse   7F FF 00 127 255 0
Chocolate   D2 69 1E 210 105 30
Coral   FF 7F 50 255 127 80
CornflowerBlue   64 95 ED 100 149 237
Cornsilk   FF F8 DC 255 248 220
Crimson   DC 14 3C 220 20 60
Cyan   00 FF FF 0 255 255
DarkBlue   00 00 8B 0 0 139
DarkCyan   00 8B 8B 0 139 139
DarkGoldenrod   B8 86 0B 184 134 11
DarkGray   A9 A9 A9 169 169 169
DarkGreen   00 64 00 0 100 0
DarkKhaki   BD B7 6B 189 183 107
DarkMagenta   8B 00 8B 139 0 139
DarkOliveGreen   55 6B 2F 85 107 47
DarkOrange   FF 8C 00 255 140 0
DarkOrchid   99 32 CC 153 50 204
DarkRed   8B 00 00 139 0 0
DarkSalmon   E9 96 7A 233 150 122
DarkSeaGreen   8F BC 8F 143 188 143
DarkSlateBlue   48 3D 8B 72 61 139
DarkSlateGray   2F 4F 4F 47 79 79
DarkTurquoise   00 CE D1 0 206 209
DarkViolet   94 00 D3 148 0 211
DeepPink   FF 14 93 255 20 147
DeepSkyBlue   00 BF FF 0 191 255
DimGray   69 69 69 105 105 105
DodgerBlue   1E 90 FF 30 144 255
FireBrick   B2 22 22 178 34 34
FloralWhite   FF FA F0 255 250 240
ForestGreen   22 8B 22 34 139 34
Fuchsia   FF 00 FF 255 0 255
Gainsboro   DC DC DC 220 220 220
GhostWhite   F8 F8 FF 248 248 255
Gold   FF D7 00 255 215 0
Goldenrod   DA A5 20 218 165 32
Gray clash between X11 and HTML/CSS - See previous table

Green clash between X11 and HTML/CSS - See previous table

GreenYellow   AD FF 2F 173 255 47
Honeydew   F0 FF F0 240 255 240
HotPink   FF 69 B4 255 105 180
IndianRed   CD 5C 5C 205 92 92
Indigo   4B 00 82 75 0 130
Ivory   FF FF F0 255 255 240
Khaki   F0 E6 8C 240 230 140
Lavender   E6 E6 FA 230 230 250
LavenderBlush   FF F0 F5 255 240 245
LawnGreen   7C FC 00 124 252 0
LemonChiffon   FF FA CD 255 250 205
LightBlue   AD D8 E6 173 216 230
LightCoral   F0 80 80 240 128 128
LightCyan   E0 FF FF 224 255 255
LightGoldenrodYellow   FA FA D2 250 250 210
LightGreen   90 EE 90 144 238 144
LightGrey   D3 D3 D3 211 211 211
LightPink   FF B6 C1 255 182 193
LightSalmon   FF A0 7A 255 160 122
LightSeaGreen   20 B2 AA 32 178 170
LightSkyBlue   87 CE FA 135 206 250
LightSlateGray   77 88 99 119 136 153
LightSteelBlue   B0 C4 DE 176 196 222
LightYellow   FF FF E0 255 255 224
Lime   00 FF 00 0 255 0
LimeGreen   32 CD 32 50 205 50
Linen   FA F0 E6 250 240 230
Magenta   FF 00 FF 255 0 255
Maroon clash between X11 and HTML/CSS - See previous table
MediumAquamarine   66 CD AA 102 205 170
MediumBlue   00 00 CD 0 0 205
MediumOrchid   BA 55 D3 186 85 211
MediumPurple   93 70 DB 147 112 219
MediumSeaGreen   3C B3 71 60 179 113
MediumSlateBlue   7B 68 EE 123 104 238
MediumSpringGreen   00 FA 9A 0 250 154
MediumTurquoise   48 D1 CC 72 209 204
MediumVioletRed   C7 15 85 199 21 133
MidnightBlue   19 19 70 25 25 112
MintCream   F5 FF FA 245 255 250
MistyRose   FF E4 E1 255 228 225
Moccasin   FF E4 B5 255 228 181
NavajoWhite   FF DE AD 255 222 173
Navy   00 00 80 0 0 128
OldLace   FD F5 E6 253 245 230
Olive   80 80 00 128 128 0
OliveDrab   6B 8E 23 107 142 35
Orange   FF A5 00 255 165 0
OrangeRed   FF 45 00 255 69 0
Orchid   DA 70 D6 218 112 214
PaleGoldenrod   EE E8 AA 238 232 170
PaleGreen   98 FB 98 152 251 152
PaleTurquoise   AF EE EE 175 238 238
PaleVioletRed   DB 70 93 219 112 147
PapayaWhip   FF EF D5 255 239 213
PeachPuff   FF DA B9 255 218 185
Peru   CD 85 3F 205 133 63
Pink   FF C0 CB 255 192 203
Plum   DD A0 DD 221 160 221
PowderBlue   B0 E0 E6 176 224 230
Purple clash between X11 and HTML/CSS - See previous table
PurwaBlue   9B E1 FF 155 225 255
Red   FF 00 00 255 0 0
RosyBrown   BC 8F 8F 188 143 143
RoyalBlue   41 69 E1 65 105 225
SaddleBrown   8B 45 13 139 69 19
Salmon   FA 80 72 250 128 114
SandyBrown   F4 A4 60 244 164 96
SeaGreen   2E 8B 57 46 139 87
Seashell   FF F5 EE 255 245 238
Sienna   A0 52 2D 160 82 45
Silver   C0 C0 C0 192 192 192
SkyBlue   87 CE EB 135 206 235
SlateBlue   6A 5A CD 106 90 205
SlateGray   70 80 90 112 128 144
Snow   FF FA FA 255 250 250
SpringGreen   00 FF 7F 0 255 127
SteelBlue   46 82 B4 70 130 180
Tan   D2 B4 8C 210 180 140
Teal   00 80 80 0 128 128
Thistle   D8 BF D8 216 191 216
Tomato   FF 63 47 255 99 71
Turquoise   40 E0 D0 64 224 208
Violet   EE 82 EE 238 130 238
Wheat   F5 DE B3 245 222 179
White   FF FF FF 255 255 255
WhiteSmoke   F5 F5 F5 245 245 245
Yellow   FF FF 00 255 255 0
YellowGreen   9A CD 32 154 205 50

Shades of gray

The list shown above covers only the colors supported by popular browsers as defined for JavaScript 1.1 and before. Some browsers like Netscape navigator insisted on an a in any gray except for lightgrey.

The complete rgb.txt defines 101 shades from gray0 (black) up to gray100 (white) in addition to gray and its variants listed above.

The shades are apparently defined by the formula grayN := round(N*255/100) resulting in e.g. gray96 #F5F5F5 (245), which happens to be the same as WhiteSmoke. Similarly dimgray is the same as gray41 #696969 (105).

On the other hand gray #BEBEBE (190) lies between gray74 #BDBDBD (189) and gray75 #BFBFBF (191), darkgray #A9A9A9 (169) isn't the same as gray66 #A8A8A8 (168), and lightgrey #D3D3D3 (211) isn't the same as gray83 #D4D4D4 (212).

Color variations

For 78 colors as listed above, rgb.txt offers four variants "color1", "color2", "color3", and "color4", with "color1" corresponding to "color", so e.g. "snow1" is the same as "snow". These variations are neither supported by popular browsers nor adopted by W3C standards.The formulae used to determine the RGB values for these variations appear to be somewhere near

color2 := color*93.2/100 (93%),
color3 := color*80.4/100 (80%),
color4 := color*54.8/100 (54%).Examples:

  • 205.2=255*80.4/100 and 192.96=240*80.4/100 explain ivory3 #CDCDC1 (205 205 196) based on ivory #FFFFF0 (255 255 240),
  • 139.74=255*54.8/100 and 131.52=240*54.8/100 are close to azure4 #838B8B (131 139 139) based on azure #F0FFFF (240 255 255),
  • 237.66=255*93.2/100 yields yellow2 #EEEE00 (238 238 0) based on yellow #FFFF00 (255 255 0).

See also

External links

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