Human gait is the way locomotion is achieved using human limbs. For this article different gaits do not require changes in the geometry of motion, but rather, changes in the contact with the surface (ground, floor, etc).
In common with other gaits, walking involves progression by alternating periods of loading and unloading. In walking, as distinct from running, at least one limb is always in contact with the ground. In bipedal locomotion, this results in periods of double support, in which both limbs make contact for some time in the gait cycle. In running, this double support phase is lost and replaced by a flight phase, in which no limb is in contact with the ground.
Walking is the most common human gait. It is characterized by alternating steps of left and right lower limbs. It generally provides useful speeds of progression for daily activities with near-optimal energy efficiency.
is the second most useful of the gaits or sub-gait for locomotion, although it is typically only used in the military or marching bands. It is a sub-gait because it is in essence walking. The main differences are that side-to-side motion is virtually removed and the weight is placed on the leading foot, rather than equidistant between the two, as in walk. This produces a highly efficient, high speed walk which is far more energy efficient than running and can produce 2x to 4x a typical walk's speed.
Speed (or race) walking
is a modified walk where the leg must be straight as it passes below the hip
, which is not a requirement for marching. This is mainly because a march will often cause a person to overstep, and that marching is but slightly off of running and would be extremely difficult to tell the difference in a race.
is a walk in the opposite direction without changing facing
is a walk where the body is shifted forward so that the centre of mass
remains either equidistant
(carry-walk) or on the front foot (carry-march). This is used for carrying weight on the back.
walk is designed for minimum sound. This is the quietest of all ways of moving on a surface. A regular walk has the heel
landing first then the flat (with the body's weight), then a push off from the toes. Ghost walk has the heel landing first, followed by the outer ridge and then a push off from the toe. The weight is distributed during the entire movement, rather than suddenly.
- See also: sneak and tiptoe
Similar to the ghost walk, but instead of landing on the heel and rolling to the outer ridge of the foot, the walker lands first on the outer edge of the ball of the foot, then places his weight fully on the ball, then sets the edge and heel down. This form of walking is very deliberate and quiet but also slower than most gaits. Often weight is kept on the standing leg until the walker is ready to place his forward foot rather than than pitching his weight forward in anticipation of the next step. The forward leg is bent at the knee, not locked, allowing the foot to move straight up and down vis-a-vis the ground. It is a useful gait for people who are walking barefoot, particularly on rough or dangerous surfaces because the walker can quickly pull away from a dangerous step before committing to it. Also he can avoid stepping on an object that would make noise. This gait can be performed bent over or in a squat as in the stalk or prowl, described below.
Stalk or prowl
is essentially a walk while in a full squat
. This is designed to be a walk that maintains a low profile. A good soldier
can keep the profile as low as a regular crawl.
Also known as tick-tock
, the bear walk is the only non-practical walk. It is essentially a walk or a march (bear march), where each arm is brought up with the leg on the same side rather than the opposite side. This twists the body, and is inefficient and less comfortable; however it has some rhythm and so does not automatically switch to phase with the opposite leg. This can also happen early in footdrill
training, where the recruit
may suddenly find themselves in an awkward gait.
A sub-gait of walking where if the feet are brought off the ground it is done only so much as necessary.
Also known as shikkō
in Japanese martial arts
), a 2-beat gait that starts with one foot and the other knee on the ground. The kneeling foot is brought forward and the standing foot rotates down to a kneel. This is used to keep the centre-of-mass as close to the ground as possible (by force or volition
), while still being able to move and fight.
is when the walker moves primarily using their hands.
is nearly identical to walking or marching except that the person is actually airborne
once each beat. This is the chief high-speed gait of humans. The beats happen faster and the distance traveled per-beat is also much higher. Running requires a lot more energy than walking. A well-trained human can run continuously for hours at a time (see marathon
is a sub-gait of run where the pace is much less and the legs nearly never go out of the body's centreline.
is to running what marching is to walking. It requires running as fast as one can for a defined length, resulting in the speed being much greater than the conventional "run" or "jog". The weight is put on top of or even beyond the front foot. This will quickly cause the person to become winded
Air borne shuffle
Essentially half-way between marching and jogging, where the feet are pulled just off the ground. This is to provide a middle ground between marching and jogging.
Crawls can refer to the specific gait or to any gait involving the arms and legs.
Crawling is used mainly:
- When he/she cannot walk because of being an infant or due to disability or being wounded or sick.
- In very low places (caves, under a table, in a mine, etc.). Sometimes underground miners need to crawl long distances during their work.
- When searching for something on the ground.
- To get down to the ground in gardening, for maintenance or other work-related purposes which require a good reach on the ground
- For stealth (camouflage and quietness)
- To lower the field of vision
- For fun or comical purposes.
is a specific 4-beat
gait involving the hands
. A typical crawl is left-hand, right-knee, right-hand, left-knee, or a hand, the diagonal knee, the other hand then its diagonal knee. This is the first gait most humans learn, and is really only practical during early childhood
, or when looking for something on the floor or under low relief
. It can be used to move with a lower silhouette
, but there are better crawls for that purpose. This is the most natural of the crawls and is the one that requires the least effort
crawl is almost identical to the regular crawl, but the feet
are used instead of the knees, which creates an arched or squatted body posture
. This works as a faster crawl but requires more effort to maintain.
- See also: The Family That Walks On All Fours
crawl is an upside down bear crawl. The crab crawl starts by sitting down with the feet and hands flat on the ground, the hips are then raised off the ground and the chest faces the sky. It is usually done for fun and can be done in any direction. This is the most unnatural of the crawls and is the one that requires the most effort
. It is often used in children's games; children walking in crab crawl try to knock each other down by kicking out each other's legs or arms.
Leopard crawl/Low crawl
crawl is a military
-specific crawl. There are two versions, the leopard crawl proper and a modified version for when carrying weapons
in the hands. This is a two-beat gait like a trot
: an arm/elbow
is advanced with the diagonal knee. This is designed for the smallest silhouette possible, and the body is often nearly or actually touching the ground, and although the elbow and knee are the main focus, most of the respective limbs touch the ground.
crawl is essentially a highly accelerated combination between crawl and leopard crawl. It uses the hands and the knees/feet depending upon the situation, while maintaining a silhouette almost as small as that of the leopard crawl. This is relatively fast gait but can take large amounts of energy.
is a 1-beat gait on either one or two feet. 1-foot hops are practical when a limb is no longer usable.
A 3-beat, 4-beat, or 6-beat gait where a foot is repeated (i.e. L,L,R, R,R,L, L,L,R,L,R,R, etc. but there are many variations there of: L,L,R,R, etc.) It is typically considered an expression of giddiness, but it can be used in the place of run when one limb is injured but can still be used, (mild sprain).
Half-way between a run and a skip. A three-beat gait (i.e. R,R,L or L,L,R) in which between the second and the third beats there is basically a run. There are three types "The fast skun", "The slow skun", and "The fancy skun."
A two-beat gait similar to walk except that one of the paces is significantly shorter than the other. This is done to protect an injured limb.
A two-beat gait where one foot is moved to the side and the other is brought to meet (rather than pass) it. This is used for moving sideways.
Computer gaming jargon for a two-beat gait where one foot is moved to the side and the other is brought past it. This term is popularly used to describe sideways movement by the player in first-person shooters
A movement from a seated position, where the person moves forward by pulling the feet in towards the body. This is typically performed by infants
who are not yet able to crawl.
There are many gender differences
in human gait, females walk with lesser step width and more pelvis movement. Gait analysis
generally takes gender into consideration. Females walking with hip sway, and males walking with swagger in shoulder generally have more physical attractiveness
. A study by Stuart Brody of University of the West of Scotland says women gait reflects their orgasmic
In the military there are various standard paces:
- Quick March: The basic mobility. 120-beats/min (2 hertz), 30" pace.
- Double March: The basic run. 240-beats/min (4 hertz).
- Highland March: Regiment specific pace, 80-beats/min. Used when wearing kilts.
- Rifle March: Regiment specific pace, 180-beats/min.
- Slow March: Ceremonial pace, 40-60 beats/min.
- Parade March: Usually seen combined with music, ~108 beats/min. in the UK, ~120 beats/min. in the USA
- Paso legionario: Specific march used by the Spanish Legion, 144 beats/min, embodiment of their "espiritu de marcha".
There are various other requirements for marching (excluding 2x-time.) The British and her Commonwealth bring their arms chest-pocket high. Countries of the Eastern Bloc often have the leg kept straight on the forward pace. These actually aid in maintaining speed and increase efficiency for long range travel.
Recent Dutch trend: increasing numbers of commuters are skipping
"The biomechanics of skipping gaits: a third locomotion paradigm?" A E Minetti Proc Biol Sci. 1998 July 7; 265(1402): 1227–1235.