Definitions

SKS

SKS

The SKS is a Russian 7.62x39mm caliber semi-automatic carbine, designed in 1945 by Sergei Gavrilovich Simonov. SKS is an acronym for Samozaryadniy Karabin sistemi Simonova (Russian: Самозарядный карабин системы Симонова), 1945 (Self-loading Carbine, Simonov's system, 1945), or SKS 45. The SKS carbine was rather quickly phased out of first-line service, replaced by the AK-47, but remained in second-line service for decades afterwards. It remains a ceremonial arm today. It was widely exported and produced by the former Eastern Bloc nations, as well as China, where it was designated the "Type 56", East Germany as the "Karabiner S" and in North Korea as the "Type 63". It is today popular on the civilian surplus market in many countries. Together with the RPD light machine gun the SKS was one of the first weapons chambered for the 7.62x39mm M43 round later used in the AK-47 and RPK.

Technical Specifications

The SKS has a conventional carbine layout, with a wooden stock and no pistol grip. Most versions are fitted with an integral folding bayonet which hinges down from the end of the barrel, and some versions, such as the Yugoslavian-made M59/66 variant, are equipped with a grenade launching attachment. As with the American M1 Carbine, the SKS is shorter and less powerful than the semi-automatic rifles which preceded it — most notably, the Soviet SVT series and the American M1 Garand. Contrary to popular belief it is not a modern assault rifle. This is because it does not meet all of the criteria of a true assault rifle, though there are some variants that fall closer to the definition. It does not possess the capability for selective fire, and the basic design does not possess a removable magazine. Some selective-fire variants were produced in the PRC; however, the basic design of the SKS is semi-automatic in nature. The carbine's ten-round box magazine is fed from a stripper clip (see below), and rounds stored in the magazine can be removed by depressing a magazine catch (thus opening the "floor" of the magazine and allowing the rounds to fall out) located forward of the trigger guard.

Design

A standard SKS is semi-automatic and has a fixed/hinged 10 round magazine which is loaded from the top of the rifle either by manually inserting the ammunition one round at a time or with a 10-round stripper clip. In typical military use, the stripper clips are disposable, although they may actually be reloaded many, many times and reused if necessary. The SKS is a gas-operated weapon that has a spring-loaded operating rod and a gas piston rod that work the action via gas pressure pushing against them. Also, it has a "tilting bolt" action locking system. Some variants of the SKS have been modified, with limited success, to accept AK-47 detachable magazines (military rifles designed with fixed magazines often experience feed jams when modified to accept detachable magazines, and the SKS is no exception). Norinco had, at one point, manufactured the SKS-M, SKS-D, and MC-5D models which were engineered from the factory to accept AKM magazines without problems (though the wood stock must be relieved to accept drum magazines). The SKS also has a slightly longer barrel than AK-series rifles, with a fractionally higher muzzle velocity.

While early Russian models had spring-loaded firing pins, most variants of the SKS have a free floating firing pin within the bolt. Because of this design, care must be taken during cleaning (especially after long storage) to ensure that the firing pin does not stick in the forward position within the bolt. SKS firing pins that are stuck in the forward position have been known to cause accidental "slamfires" (uncontrolled automatic fire that empties the magazine, starting when the bolt is released). This behavior is less likely with the hard primer military-spec ammo for which the SKS was designed, but as with any rifle the user should properly maintain his firearm. For collectors, slamfires are more likely when the bolt still has remnants of cosmoline embedded in it. The firing pin is triangular in cross section, and slamfires can also result if the firing pin is inserted upside down.

In most variants (Yugoslav models being the most notable exception), the barrel is chrome lined for increased wear and heat tolerance from sustained fire and to resist corrosion from chlorate primed corrosive ammunition, as well as to facilitate cleaning. Chrome bore lining is common in military rifles. Although it can diminish practical accuracy, this is not a real limit on field grade accuracy in a weapon of this type.

All military SKSs have a bayonet attached to the underside of the barrel, which is extended and retracted via a spring-loaded hinge (some are removable whereas some are permanent). The SKS is easily field stripped and reassembled with no tools. The rifle has a cleaning kit stored in a trapdoor in the buttstock, with a cleaning rod running under the barrel, in the same style as the AK-47. In common with other Soviet-era designs, the SKS trades accuracy for ruggedness, ease of maintenance, ease of use, and low manufacturing cost. The SKS is a simple design that is highly effective and rugged.

History

During World War II, many countries realized that existing rifles, such as the Mosin-Nagant, were too long and heavy and fired overly powerful cartridges, creating excessive recoil. These cartridges, such as the 7.92x57mm Mauser, .303 British, .30-06 Springfield, and 7.62 x 54R were effective to ranges of up to 2,000 meters (2,200 yd); however, it was noted that most firefights took place at maximum ranges of between 100 meters (110 yd) and 300 meters (330 yd). Both the Soviet Union and Germany realized this and designed new weapons for smaller, intermediate-power cartridges. The German approach was the production of a series of intermediate cartridges and rifles in the interwar period, eventually developing the Maschinenkarabiner, or machine-carbine, which later evolved into the MP44 Sturmgewehr, or "assault rifle", which was produced during the war, chambered in the 7.92x33mm Kurz intermediate round.

Design-wise, the SKS relies on the AVS-36 (developed by same designer) to a point that some consider it a shortened AVS-36, stripped of select-fire capability and rechambered for the 7.62x39mm cartridge. It also owes heavily to the earlier SVT-40 and M-44 Mosin-Nagant rifles that it replaced, incorporating both the semiautomatic firepower of the SVT (albeit in a more manageable cartridge) and the small, fast-handling size and integral bayonet of the bolt-action carbine.

In 1949, the SKS was officially adopted into the Soviet Army, produced at the Tula Armory from 1949 until 1955 and the Izhevsk Armory in 1953 and 1954. Although the quality of Russian SKS rifles manufactured at these state-run arsenals was quite high, its design was already obsolete compared to the Kalashnikov which was selective-fire, lighter, had three times the magazine capacity, and had the potential to be less labor-intensive to manufacture. Gradually over the next few years, AK-47 production increased until the extant SKS carbines in service were relegated primarily to non-infantry and to second-line troops. They remained in service in this fashion even as late as the 1980s, and possibly the early 1990s. To this day, the SKS carbine is used by some ceremonial Russian honor guards; it is far less ubiquitous than the AK-47 but both original Russian SKS rifles and copies can still be found today in civilian hands as well as in the hands of third-world militias and insurgent groups.

The SKS was to be a gap-filling firearm produced using the proven operating mechanism design of the PTRS and using proven milled forging manufacturing techniques. This was to provide a fallback for the radically new and experimental design of the AK-47, in the event that the AK were to prove a failure. In fact, the original stamped receiver AK-47 had to be quickly redesigned to use a milled receiver which delayed production, and extended the SKS rifles' service life.

Service

The SKS fell out of service amongst its client nations during the 1960s and 1970s, although the Chinese police and military forces continued to use it during the 1980s, and chromed, polished ceremonial versions are still used today in parades, There are a few Chinese reserve and militia units still using the SKS along with the Type 56 assault rifle. Vietnam still has military police units armed with the SKS. Many surplus SKS rifles were disposed of in the 1990s, and photographs and stories exist of SKS rifles used by guerilla fighters in Bosnia, Somalia and throughout Africa and South-East Asia during the 1990s and 2000s. Several African, Asian, and Middle Eastern armies still use the SKS.

During the Cold War, Russia shared the design and manufacturing details with its allies. Therefore, many variants of the SKS exist. Some variants use a 30-round AK-47 style magazine (Chinese Type 68 and 68/72, also known as "D" & "M" models), gas port controls, flip-up night sights, and prominent, muzzle-mounted grenade launchers (Yugoslav M59/66, possibly North Korean Type 63). In total, SKS rifles were manufactured by Russia, China, Yugoslavia, Albania, North Korea, Vietnam, and East Germany (Kar. S) with limited pilot production (Model 56) in Romania and Poland (Wz49.) Physically, all are very similar, although the NATO-specification 22 mm grenade launcher of the Yugoslav version, and the more encompassing stock of the Albanian version are visually distinctive. Early versions of the Russian SKS and later Chinese Type 56s (produced 1965-71) used a spike bayonet, whereas the majority use a vertically-aligned blade. Many smaller parts, most notably the sights and charging handles, were unique to different national production runs. A small quantity of SKS carbines manufactured in 1955-56 were produced in China with Russian parts, presumably as part of a technology sharing arrangement. Many Yugoslav M59/66 series rifles were exported to Uruguay and Mozambique; the Mozambique versions having teakwood stocks, the wood supplied by that nation. The vast majority of Yugoslav M59 and M59/66s have elm, walnut and beech stocks. SKS carbines have also made appearances in recent conflicts in Africa, Afghanistan, and Iraq.

Nations that utilized the SKS but did not receive manufacturing rights included Afghanistan,Congo, Indonesia, Iraq, Laos, Lebanon, Mongolia, Morocco, the United Arab Republic (Egypt) and the Yemen People's Democratic Republic.

The SKS has also been featured prominently around the world during times of civil unrest. In the United States, the SKS was used successfully by Korean shopkeepers to fend off looters during the 1992 Los Angeles riots.

Variants

After World War II, the SKS design was licensed or sold to a number of the Soviet Union's allies, including China, Yugoslavia, Albania, North Korea, Vietnam, East Germany, Romania and Poland. Most of these nations produced nearly identical variants, with the most common modifications being differing styles of bayonets and the 22 mm grenade launcher commonly seen on Yugoslavian models.

NOTE: All SKS variants except for the Yugoslav M59/66 are carbines. This is due to the additional length that the flash hider/grenade launcher attachment gives to the SKS.

Differences from the "baseline" late Russian Tula Armory/Izhevsk Armory SKS:

  • Early (1949-1951) Russian: Spike-style bayonet instead of blade-style. Squared-off gas block instead of the rounded one more commonly seen. Spring-return firing pin on earliest models.
  • Soviet Honor Guard: All-chrome metal parts, with a lighter-colored wood stock.
  • Chinese Type 56: Numerous minor tweaks, including lack of milling on the bolt carrier, partially or fully stamped (as opposed to milled) receivers, and differing types of thumb rest on the takedown lever. The Chinese continually revised the SKS manufacturing process, so variation can be seen even between two examples from the same factory. All of the Type 56 carbine rifles have been removed from military service, except a few being used for ceremonial purposes. Type 56 carbines with serial numbers below 9,000,000 have the Russian-style blade-type folding bayonet, while those 9,000,000 and higher have a "spike" type folding bayonet.
  • Chinese Honor Guard: Mostly, but not all, chromed metal parts. Does not generally have the lighter-colored stock as the Soviet Honor Guard variant.
  • Chinese Type 63, 68, 73, 81, 84: Only a close relative to the SKS, these rifles shared features from several east-bloc rifles (SKS, AK-47, Dragunov). AK-47 style rotary bolt and detachable magazine. The Type 68 featured a stamped sheet-steel receiver. The 81 is an upgraded Type 68 with a three-round burst capability, some of which (Type 81-1) have a folding stock. The Type 84 returns to semi-auto fire only, is modified to accept AK-47 magazines, and has a shorter 16" paratrooper barrel.
  • Chinese commercial production: Blonde wood stock instead of dark wood, spike bayonet instead of blade, bayonet retaining bolt replaced with a rivet. Sub-variants include the M21, "Cowboy's Companion", Hunter, Models D/M, Paratrooper, Sharpshooter, and Sporter. Model D rifles used military style stocks and had bayonet lugs (although some were imported minus bayonet, and a small few minus the lug in order to meet changing US import restrictions). Model M rifles had no bayonet lug and used either a thumbhole or monte-carlo style stock. Both model D and M used AK-47 magazines and as a result had no bolt hold open feature on the rifle.
  • Romanian: Typically nearly identical to the late Russian model.
  • Polish ksS: Refurbished Soviet rifles. Polish laminated stocks lack storage area in back of stock for cleaning kit. A few hundred SKS's were given to Poland by the Soviet Union around 1954, SKS rifles still in use in ceremonial units of the Polish Army, Air Force, Navy where they replaced AWT rifles. Honour guards of the Polish Police and Boarder Guard also use SKS rifles. SKS rifles were never adopted by combat units. In Polish service they are known as ksS which stands for karabin samopowtarzalny Simonova, Simonov's semi-automatic rifle.
  • Yugoslavian PAP M59: Barrel is not chrome-lined. PAP means "Polu-automatska puška" (Semi-automatic rifle) and the rifle was nicknamed "Papovka".
  • Yugoslavian PAP M59/66: Added 22 mm grenade launcher which appears visually like a flash suppressor or muzzle brake on the end of the barrel. Front sight has a fold-up "ladder" for use in grenade sighting (main sights have flip up phosphorus or tritium night sights). Barrel is not chrome-lined. Both the grenade launcher and grenade sight are NATO spec. Stock is typically made from beech wood.
  • Zastava Arms LKP-66: Hunting version. No bayonet or bayonet lug. Sporting stock. Scope mount. 7 round magazine.
  • Albanian "July 10 Rifle": Longer stock and handguard on the gas tube, and AK-47 style charging handle.
  • East German Karabiner-S: Extremely rare. Slot cut into back of stock for pull-through sling. No storage area in back of stock or storage for cleaning rod under barrel.
  • North Korean Type 63: Extremely rare. At least three separate models were made. One "standard" model with blade bayonet, and a second with a gas shutoff and a grenade launcher, similar to the M59/66. The North Korean grenade launcher was detachable from the muzzle and the gas shutoff was different from the Yugoslavian model, however. A third model appears to have side-swinging bayonet.
  • Vietnamese Type 1: Extremely rare. Differences unknown.

There is some debate as to the relative quality of each nation's SKS production; Yugoslav types are generally considered to be better made than Chinese, yet the Chinese types typically have chrome lined barrels while the Yugoslav versions do not. East German, Russian and Albanian SKSs bring a higher price than those of other countries, the stock on the Albanian versions being of a slightly different manufacture and being rarer due to low production numbers. There were approximately 18,000 Albanian SKSs manufactured during the late 1960s until 1978, and of those, approximately half were destroyed. Most of the remaining East German SKSs had been sold/transferred to Croatia in the early 1990s.

A sporterized hunting version of the SKS is still manufactured in Serbia, by the Zastava Armory. It is designated the LKP 66, and features a "Monte Carlo" style one-piece stock, receiver mounted scope mount, modified trigger, and flush-fit 7 round magazine. It also has a redesigned front sight with no bayonet mount.

Users

Civilian use

The SKS is popular on the civilian surplus market, especially in the United States. Because of their historic and novel nature, Russian and European SKS rifles are classified by the BATF as "Curio & Relic" items under US law, allowing them to be sold with features that might otherwise be restricted. Chinese manufactured rifles, however, are not so classified. Because of the massive size of the Chinese People's Liberation Army, over 8 million Chinese SKS rifles were produced during their 20 years of use making the Chinese SKS one of the most mass produced military rifles of all time.

In Australia, the Chinese SKS rifle (along with the Russian SKS rifle) was very popular with recreational hunters and target shooters during the 1980's and early 1990's before semi-automatic rifles were banned from legal ownership in 1996. Since the introduction of the 1996 gun bans in Australia, the Mosin-Nagant series of bolt-action rifles and carbines have now filled the void created by politicians when the SKS was banned from legal ownership.

In the early 1990s, the Chinese SKS rapidly became the "poor man's deer rifle" in some Southern areas of the United States due to its low price, lower even than such old favorites in that role as the Marlin 336. Importation of the Chinese SKS into the USA was banned in 1994.

Due to its relatively low cost and widespread availability and usage, the SKS has spawned a growing market for both replacement parts and accessories. Many aftermarket parts are available to upgrade the rifle — sometimes so considerably that it bears little resemblance to the original firearm. This process, known as "sporterizing" (or by the somewhat derogatory terms "bubba'd or "tapcofucked"), may include items such as synthetic buttstocks, extra capacity magazines, replacement receiver covers (which allow the mounting of scopes, lasers, etc.), different muzzle brakes, recoil buffers, and more.

Ballistics

The 7.62x39mm cartridge fired by the SKS is sometimes said to be roughly equivalent to the Winchester .30-30 round when used as a deer hunting round. However, the 7.62 is sometimes considered inferior to the .30-30 as a hunting cartridge, due to its historical use of relatively lightweight bullets by caliber. At 200+ yards, a 7.62x39mm bullet, due to its more aerodynamic shape and slightly higher velocity, will provide a flatter trajectory and will retain more energy than a round nose .30-30. Hollowpoint 7.62x39mm and soft point 7.62x39mm hunting bullets are available, but 7.62x39 hollowpoint bullets are slightly lighter than maximum grain .30-30 loadings, giving a slight edge to the heaviest .30-30 bullets over 7.62x39mm hollowpoint bullets for close-in hunting in brush amid typical Eastern United States hunting scenarios encountered while hunting for deer. On the other hand, the soft point 7.62x39 bullets have a slight advantage over the round nose .30-30 bullets, at all ranges beyond approximately , due to the spitzer shape of the 7.62x39. Another factor is that the most common 7.62x39 ammunition uses the harder Berdan primers, unlike the standard American boxer primers. Some SKS rifles tend to rupture the softer primers, leading to possible mechanical fouling.

Legal Issues

The carbine's integral 10-round magazine is not an issue in those states and nations which prohibit higher-capacity magazines, except Canada, where it must be pinned to 5 rounds or the rifles must be retrofitted with 5 shot magazines. Where higher capacity magazines are legally permitted, there are a number of secondary market vendors that sell higher capacity magazines of up to 30 rounds (or more). These secondary market magazines may be installed by first removing the fixed OEM magazine (a process that involves the removal of the trigger group assembly with a pin punch, screwdriver, bullet-tip, or similar device). However, although the 7.62x39mm round is generally compared to the American Winchester .30-30, many states have laws against hunting rifles with magazines of more than 5 rounds. Magazine plugs limiting the magazine to 5 rounds must be used for hunting in these states.

SKS rifles with detachable magazines are banned in the US states of California and New Jersey. They are also banned in Cook County, Illinois, which includes Chicago and many suburbs.

References

External links

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