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Dynamo Open Air

Dynamo Open Air is a festival in the Netherlands held (almost) every year since 1986. Originally held to celebrate the fifth anniversary of the Dynamo rock club in Eindhoven, it has grown exponentially since then, and from a 5,000-person attendance in the Dynamo parking lot, it had grown to over 110,000 attendees in 1995. However, this caused too much pressure on the Dutch infrastructure, and the festival had to shrink to a maximum of 60,000 visitors for 1996. From there it went downhill, mostly because the festival could not find a permanent venue. In 1999 Dynamo Open Air was held on a former junkyard near Eindhoven, and the following year it went to the Goffertpark in Nijmegen. That was the first time DOA was held outside the province of Noord-Brabant, and it was for the first time in years that the festival had to shrink down to only one day. The previous years it had always been a two- or three-day festival.

In 2001, the organisation thought they had found a site where the festival could return on a yearly basis, near the town of Lichtenvoorde. However, the threat of Foot-and-mouth disease caused trouble, and Dynamo Open Air had to be cancelled. In 2002 it returned, at the site of the Bospop festival, but 2003 was another year without a Dynamo festival. For 2004, the festival returned to Nijmegen, at the same location where it took place in 2000. In 2005, the festival used the site of the Dauwpop festival, and the re-formed Anthrax dominated the stage. There are no plans for a festival in 2008.

Line-ups and dates

September 7 1986: Angelwitch, Avalon, Battlezone, Chariot, Joshua, Onslaught, Satan

June 8 1987: Atomkraft, Destruction, Mad Max, Stryper, Testament, Vengeance

May 23 1988: Candlemass, Exodus, Laaz Rockit, Paradox, Sabbat, Toxik

May 15 1989: Armored Saint, Forbidden, Holy Moses, Sacred Reich, Savatage, Sleeze Beez, Fatal Destiny

June 4 1990: Death Angel, Modred, Sacred Reich, Sepultura, Trouble, Vicious Rumors

May 20 1991: Armored Saint, Extreme, Ignorance, Metal Church, Morbid Angel, Obituary, Primus, Psychotic Waltz, Saigon Kick

June 7 1992: Love On Ice, Modred, My Sister's Machine, Paradise Lost, Pestilence, Prong, Rollins Band, Skyclad, The O

May 29 and 30 1993: Annihilator, Anthrax, Biohazard, Fear Factory, Freak of Nature, Fudge Tunnel, Gorefest, Kong, Mercyful Fate, Mindfunk, Monster Magnet, Nocturnal Rites, Nudeswirl, Suicidal Tendencies, Temple of the Absurd, Trouble, Wool, Z

May 21 and 22 1994: B-Thong, Clawfinger, Cynic, Danzig, Die Krupps, Forbidden, Gorefest, Jackyl, Kyuss, Last Crack, Life of Agony, Nerve, Pride & Glory, Prong, Sick of It All, Skintrade, Skrew, Skyclad, Sleeze Beez, The O, The Obsessed, Urban Dance Squad, Vicious Rumors

June 2, 3 and 4 1995: 35007, Absconded, Biohazard, Blitz Babies, Brotherhood Foundation, Crash Worship, Dog Eat Dog, Downset, Dub War, Earth Crisis, Eleven Pictures, Fear Factory, Grip Inc., Hate Squad, Horace Pinker, Life of Agony, Machine Head, Madball, Mary Beats Jane, Mental Hippie Blood, Motorpsycho, My Dying Bride, Nailbomb, Nevermore, No Fun At All, NRA, Orange 9mm, Overdose, Paradise Lost, Rape, Rich Kids on LSD, Schweisser, Shihad, Skyclad, Snapcase, Strawman, Sun, Tiamat, Trouble, Type O Negative,Undeclinable Ambuscade, Warrior Soul, Waving Corn

May 24, 25 and 26 1996: 59 Times the Pain, 7 Zuma 7, Altar, Anathema, Bambix, Channel Zero, CIV, Cooper, Dearly Beheaded, Dog Eat Dog, Down By Law, Drain, Dreamgrinder, Eboman, Frozen Sun, Galactic Cowboys, Gorefest, Gurd, H20, Merauder, Millencolin, Neurosis, NRA, Orphanage, Osdorp Posse & Nembrionic, Pennywise, Pitchshifter, Pro-Pain, Ryker's, Sacred Reich, Satanic Surfers, Savatage, Shelter, Skippies, Skrew, Slapshot, Slayer, Spiritual Beggars, Strung Out, Stuck Mojo, The Exploited, The Gathering, Torque, Unsane, Venom, Voivod, White Devil

May 16, 17 and 18 1997: $400 Suits, Amorphis, Backfire!, Coal Chamber, Cradle of Filth, Deviates, Dimmu Borgir, Discipline, Entombed, Exodus, Goddess of Desire, Helmet, I Against I, Karma to Burn, Keaton (artist), KoRn, Laberinto, Machine Head , Marilyn Manson, Moonspell, Ni Hao, Occult, Orphanage, Pist. On, Rage, Samael, Satyricon, Secret Discovery, Sentenced, Sick of It All, Skinlab, Slo Burn, Slyce, SNFU, Sundown, Testament, Therion, Thumb, Tiamat, Totenmond, Type O Negative, Vision of Disorder, Voodoo Glow Skulls, Within Temptation

May 29, 30 and 31 1998: 25 Ta Life, 7 Zuma 7, Agnostic Front, Atrocity, Battery, Better Than a Thousand, Bewitched, Blind Guardian, Bloodlet, Brotherhood Foundation & Hardcore All Stars, Cathedral, Coal Chamber, Cold, Congress, Covenant, Death, Deftones, Dimmu Borgir, Driven, Emperor, Enslaved, Far, Fates Warning, Form, Fu Manchu, Fury of Five, Good Riddance, H2O, Hammerfall, Hard Resistance, Hatebreed, Hed PE, Helloween, Iced Earth, Ignite, Immortal, In Flames, Incubus, Insane Clown Posse, Jane's Detd., Junkie XL, Kreator, Life of Agony, Limp Bizkit(cancelled), Masters of Reality, Maximum Penalty, Misery Loves Co., The Misfits, Oomph!, Orange Goblin, Pantera, Primal Fear, Pro-Pain, Rammstein, Refused, Right Direction, Saxon, Sevendust, sHeavy, Soulfly, Spiritual Beggars, Strapping Young Lad, Stratovarius, Stuck Mojo, Tech-9, Theatre of Tragedy, The Black Symphony, The Hellacopters, Think About Mutation, Tom Angelripper, Transport League, Tura Satana, Ultraspank, Undeclinable Ambuscade, Within Temptation, Zebrahead

May 21, 22 and 23 1999: 59 Times the Pain, All Out War, Anathema, Ancient Rites, Angra, Apocalyptica, Arch Enemy, Atari Teenage Riot, Biohazard, Black Label Society, Cage, Cold As Life, Cradle of Filth, Cryptopsy, Cubanate, Darkane, De Heideroosjes, Dimmu Borgir, E.Town Concrete, Fatso Jetson, Fear Factory, Gamma Ray, Gluecifer, Goatsnake, God Dethroned, Grip Inc., Hard-Ons, Hypocrisy, In Extremo, Iron Monkey, Labyrinth, Lacuna Coil, Loudness, Madball, Manowar, Marduk, Merauder, Mercyful Fate, Meshuggah, Metallica, Monster Magnet, Murphy's Law, Nashville Pussy, Nebula, Nevermore, Nile, Nocturnal Rites, Oceans of Sadness, One Minute Silence, Out, Overkill, Peter Pan, Pitchshifter, Pulkas, Run Devil Run, Rykeris, Skinlab, Stormtroopers of Death, Sodom, Space Age Playboys, Spineshank, Static-X, System of a Down, The Gathering, The Haunted, Therion with orchestra, Trail of Tears, Troopers, Unida, Unjust, Violation of Trust, Zeke

June 3 2000: Destruction, Engine, Immortal, Iron Maiden, Kittie, KoRn, Mayhem, Methods of Mayhem, P.O.D., Sentenced, Slipknot, Spiritual Beggars, Suicidal Tendencies, Testament, The Kovenant, Zeke

July 14 2002: Autumn, Biohazard, Children of Bodom, Dead Soul Tribe, Death Angel, Dropkick Murphys, Finntroll, Hermano, Opeth, Pain of Salvation, Peter Pan, Soulfly, Strapping Young Lad, Within Temptation, Zimmers Hole

June 5 2004: After Forever, Agent Steel, Children of Bodom, Deicide, Dimmu Borgir, Ill Niño, Life of Agony, Mastodon, Nightwish, Oomph!, Shadows Fall, Slayer, Soulfly

May 7 2005: 3 Inches of Blood, Anthrax, Evergrey, Gorefest, Jon Oliva's Pain, Laaz Rockit, Masterplan, Mercenary, Obituary, Still Remains, Testament, Trivium.

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