In cooking, a syrup (from Arabic شراب sharab, beverage, via Latin siropus) is a thick, viscous liquid, containing a large amount of dissolved sugars, but showing little tendency to deposit crystals. The viscosity arises from the multiple hydrogen bonds between the dissolved sugar, which has many hydroxyl (OH) groups, and the water. Technically and scientifically, the term syrup is also employed to denote viscous, generally residual, liquids, containing substances other than sugars in solution. Artificial maple syrup is made with water and an extremely large amount of dissolved sugar. The solution is heated so more sugar can be put in than normally possible. The solution becomes super-saturated.
The syrup employed as a base for medicinal purposes consists of a concentrated or saturated solution of refined sugar in distilled water. The "simple syrup" of the British Pharmacopoeia
is prepared by adding 1 kg of refined sugar to 500 mL of boiling distilled water, heating until it is dissolved and subsequently adding boiling distilled water until the weight of the whole is 1.5 kg. The specific gravity
of the syrup should be 1.33. This is a 66° Brix
Flavoured syrups are made by adding flavouring matter to a simple syrup. For instance, syrupus aromaticus is prepared by adding certain quantities of orange flavouring and cinnamon water to simple syrup. Similarly, medicated syrups are prepared by adding medicaments to, or dissolving them in, the simple syrup.
is a by-product of the process of obtaining refined crystallized sugar. Molasses
is a syrup obtained at a different stage of refining.
Karo Syrup is a brand of thick corn
syrup made from a concentrated solution of dextrose
and other sugars derived from corn starch
and flavourings. It is a staple of Southern United States cuisine
, e.g., to make pecan pie
, and is pronounced "KAY-row" in that region.
Syrups for beverages
A variety of beverages call for sweetening to offset the tartness of some juices used in the drink recipes. Granulated sugar does not dissolve easily in cold drinks or ethyl alcohol
. Since the following syrups are liquids, they are easily mixed with other liquids in mixed drinks
, making them superior alternatives to granulated sugar.
A basic sugar-and-water syrup used to make drinks at bars
is referred to by several names, including simple syrup
, sugar syrup
, simple sugar syrup
, and bar syrup
Simple syrup is made by stirring granulated sugar into hot water in a sauce pan until the sugar is dissolved and then cooling the solution. Generally, a ratio of two parts sugar to one part water is used.
This type of syrup is also commonly used at coffee shops, especially in the United States, to make flavoured drinks.
is an ingredient commonly used in mixed drinks
. It is also commonly used as a sweetener for ice coffee in Japan. Like bar syrups, it is a sugar and water mixture, but has an added ingredient of gum arabic
which acts as an emulsifier
. Gomme syrup is made with the highest percentage of sugar to water possible, while the gum arabic prevents the sugar from crystallizing and adds a smooth texture.
To make gomme syrup, bring sugar and water to a boil, then add gum powder dissolved in water. Strain for use.