Definitions

Silver Certificate

Silver Certificate

Silver Certificates were printed for a time in the United States as a form of paper currency. They were produced in response to silver agitation by citizens who were angered by the Fourth Coinage Act, which placed the United States on the gold standard. The certificate was matched to the same amount of value in silver coinage. For example, one fifty dollar Silver Certificate equals fifty silver dollars.

Distinguishing Features

There are a few features that distinguish a Silver Certificate. The seal and serial numbers on many of the first Silver Certificates issued were red, brown, and blue. It was not until Series 1899 for the $1, $2, and $5 denominations that the seal and number colors were officially and permanently changed to blue. (This occurred at different points for denominations above $5). During World War II the government issued 1935a Silver Certificates with a brown seal for Hawaii distribution and 1935a certificates with a yellow seal for North Africa distribution. The idea was that if these areas fell into enemy hands during the war, the money would THEN be able to be easily identified and cancelled so as to prevent large monetary losses.

Obligation

The obligation of a certificate states how much of a specific commodity the government of a country will "pay to the bearer." On most large-size Silver Certificates, the obligation reads: "This certifies that there have/has been deposited in the Treasury of the United States of America (number) silver dollar(s) payable to the bearer on demand." On small-sized Silver Certificates beginning with Series 1934, in order to denote current location of deposit, it was changed to read: "This certifies that there is on deposit in the Treasury of the United States of America (number) dollar(s) in silver payable to the bearer on demand."

History

The Beginning of an Age

The "Coinage Act of 1873" placed the United States on the gold standard, which replaced the bimetallic (silver and gold) standard that had been created by Alexander Hamilton. Many of the poorer citizens saw this as a "crime," and silver agitation began. The Bland-Allison Act, as it came to be known, was passed by Congress on February 28, 1878. It did not provide for the "free and unlimited coinage of silver" demanded by Western miners, but it did require the United States Treasury to purchase between $2 million and $4 million of silver bullion from mining companies in the West, to be minted into coins that would be legal tender for all debts, like gold. These coins, however, were quite heavy, so the government applied their gold certificate strategy to the silver. Suppose that there were five silver dollars in the treasury. The government would print a $5 Silver Certificate against the dollars, providing a somewhat easier medium of exchange. The idea was kept, and Series 1878 was printed in denominations of $10 to $1000.

The First Small-size Silver Certificates

In 1928, the United States Treasury decided to reduce the size of its currency in order to speed up transactions, and also to cut costs. By this time, the Federal Reserve had taken over much of the currency market, and the prices of gold and silver had risen greatly. For Series 1928, only $1 Silver Certificates were produced. Fives and tens of this time were mainly Federal Reserve Notes, which were backed by and redeemable in gold. All this would change, however, with the beginning of the Great Depression in October 1929. The United States was plunged into an economic disaster of profound proportions. Many citizens blamed the fluctuating price of gold, which directly affected the U.S. dollar because it was pegged to the value of gold.

President-elect Franklin Roosevelt felt the same way. He persuaded Congress to recall all gold coins, gold bullion, and gold certificates, which circulated alongside Silver Certificates. This prompted Congress to quietly place the U.S. on the silver standard. On May 12, 1933, the Agricultural Adjustment Act was passed, which included a clause allowing for the pumping of silver into the market to replace the gold. A new Series 1933 $10 Silver Certificate was printed and released, but not many were released into circulation.

In 1934, a law was passed in Congress that changed the obligation on Silver Certificates so as to denote the current location of the silver. This law also allowed the government to exchange silver bullion for the certificates, not just silver dollars. The 1933, along with its sister, the 1933A, $10 silvers, as well as the 1928 $1 silvers were phased out and replaced with certificates of Series 1934. The small-size $5 Silver Certificate was introduced with this series, as well.

The End of the Silver Certificates

Certificates circulated, mainly in the $1 denomination, widely throughout the United States in the years following 1934. When the '34s wore out, they were replaced with a new, more modern-looking Series 1953 (1935 for the $1 silvers; see below), with the same face changes as the Series 1950 Federal Reserve Notes had experienced. However, the Silver Certificates began to disappear from circulation during the 1940s and 1950s. The amount of Silver Certificates in circulation depended directly upon the amount of silver bullion in the Treasury vaults. As people redeemed the certificates for bullion or silver dollars, the notes were shredded, because the notes had lost their backing and could not be recirculated unless there was more silver being produced. The price of silver was also rising. In 1960, it was nearing $1.29, which meant that silver dollars were worth more than $1. This meant that people would receive their silver dollars, and melt them down for the bullion, thereby reducing the amount of silver in circulation, which was already falling.

In March 1964, Secretary of the Treasury C. Douglas Dillon halted redemption of Silver Certificates for Silver Dollars. In the 1970s, large numbers of the remaining silver dollars in the mint vaults were sold to the collecting public for collector value. Silver Certificates were abolished by Congress on June 4, 1963 and all redemption in silver ceased on June 24, 1968. Paper currency is still valid legal tender without the Silver Certificate, instead being backed simply by the perceived strength of the U.S. economy. According to the U.S. treasury, "The notes have no value for themselves, but for what they will buy. In another sense, because they are legal tender, Federal Reserve notes are 'backed' by all the goods and services in the economy.

Complete Series Catalogue

This is a chart of some of the series of Silver Certificates printed. Each entry will include: series year, general description, and printing figures if available.

Large-Size Silver Certificates

1899 Silver Certificate Signatures: Lyons and Roberts Signatures: Tehee and Burke Signatures: Elliott and Burke Signatures: Elliott and Frank White Signatures: Harvey Spealman and Frank White

Large size silver certificates

1923 silver certificate signatures:Spealman and White signatures:Woods and White

Small-Size Silver Certificates

Small Size Silver Certificates
Series Denominations Signatures Printing Figure
1928 $1 H.T. Tate - Andrew W. Mellon 638,296,908
1928A $1 W.O. Woods - Andrew W. Mellon 2,267,809,500
1928A/B Experimentals $1 W.O. Woods - A.W. Mellon 31,224,000
1928B $1 W.O. Woods - Ogden L. Mills 674,597,808
1928C $1 W.O. Woods - William H. Woodin 5,364,348
1928D $1 William Alexander Julian (W.A. Julian) - William H. Woodin 14,451,372
1928E $1 W.A. Julian - Henry Morgenthau, Jr. 3,519,324
1934 $1 W.A. Julian - Henry Morgenthau, Jr. 682,176,000
1935 $1 W.A. Julian - Henry Morgenthau, Jr. 1,681,552,000
1935A $1 W.A. Julian - Henry Morgenthau, Jr.
1935A Brown Seal Hawaiian $1 W.A. Julian - Henry Morgenthau, Jr.
1935A Yellow Seal North Africa $1 W.A. Julian - Henry Dillon, Jr.
1935A Experimental R/S $1 W.A. Julian - Henry Morgenthau, Jr.
1935B $1 Tres. W.A. Julian - Sec. Fred M. Vinson
1935C $1 W.A. Julian - John W. Snyder
1935D $1 Georgia Neese Clark - John W. Snyder
1935E $1 Ivy Baker Priest - George M. Humphrey
1935F $1 Ivy Baker Priest - Robert B. Anderson
1935G $1 Elizabeth Rudel Smith - C. Douglas Dillon
1935H $1 Kathryn O'Hay Granahan - C. Douglas Dillon 31,956,000
1957 $1 Ivy Baker Priest - Robert B. Anderson 2,916,640,000
1957A $1 Elizabeth Rudel Smith - C. Douglas Dillon 1,688,720,000
1957B $1 Kathryn O'Hay Granahan - C. Douglas Dillon 767,680,000
Note the Series 1935G came in two varieties, with motto and without motto. The with motto demands higher premiums than the without motto.

See also

References


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