According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 9.0 square miles (23.3 km²), of which, 8.9 square miles (23.0 km²) of it is land and 0.1 square miles (0.3 km²) of it (1.22%) is water.
Shelbyville Central Schools consists of Shelbyville High School, Shelbyville Middle School, Coulston Elementary, Loper Elementary and Hendricks Elementary. The high school and middle school's nickname is Golden Bears. Coulston is the Comets, Hendricks is the Hurricanes and Loper is the Bulldogs. In April 2006, Shelbyville High School was featured in a Time Magazine article titled, “Dropout Nation” and was highlighted in an episode of the Oprah Winfrey Show on the same topic later that month.
St. Joseph Elementary School is a private school, associated with St. Joseph Catholic Church, in Shelbyville.
Southwestern Consolidated School Corporation consists of Southwestern Elementary and Southwestern Junior/Senior High Schools. These schools are located in the southwestern portion of the county, near Marietta, Mount Auburn and Smithland. Southwestern's nickname is the Spartans.
Northwestern Consolidated Schools consists of Triton Elemenray, Triton Middle School and Triton Central High School, all in Fairland, in the northwestern part of the county. The athletic teams are nicknamed the Tigers.
There were 7,307 households out of which 32.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.3% were married couples living together, 12.5% had a female householder with no husband present, and 36.3% were non-families. 30.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.39 and the average family size was 2.96. In the city the population was spread out with 26.2% under the age of 18, 9.5% from 18 to 24, 31.6% from 25 to 44, 19.3% from 45 to 64, and 13.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 94.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.4 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $36,824, and the median income for a family was $46,379. Males had a median income of $34,550 versus $24,331 for females. The per capita income for the city was $18,670. About 6.1% of families and 9.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.8% of those under age 18 and 11.6% of those age 65 or over.