As in any instructional approach, the use of sheltered instruction is effective when the teacher is capable of administering the lessons effectively, although the causal direction of this tautologous observation is not clear. If the lesson is administered effectively, then, by definition, the teacher is capable of administering it effectively, but if it is not administered effectively, then it cannot be determined whether this is due to teacher factors or methodological weakness. Without a far more rigorous evaluation, the claim that this is a viable approach cannot be confirmed because it is assumed that any problems arise from teacher factors, not methodological weakness. Many pre-service teacher programs are working to equip teachers with the skills they need to be successful. Beginning with pre-service teachers achieving a strong foundation of cultural psychology, language theory and acquisition as well as certified content knowledge in their undergraduate major, the courses incorporate multiple field experiences as well as pedagogical methods and cultural diversity instruction. Teachers may use sheltered instruction within a variety of program models (e.g. immersion, pull out, team-teaching). Teachers may use sheltered instruction in a mainstream class to support English language learners, or a class may be specially designed, such as "Sheltered U.S. History." Such classes may include only English language learners or English language learners and English-fluent peers.
Since the basis of sheltered instruction or SDAIE is to provide a framework for language development then one of the simplest ways follow a set format of instruction. For example, beginning each lesson with an introductory activity that assesses the students’ knowledge in a non-threatening and non-graded format will allow the teacher to evaluate the students’ skill set. It is vitally important the teacher designs her lessons to clearly define language and content as well as make the activity meaningful through the linkage to past knowledge and present and supplemental materials. Some examples of lessons include hands-on and cooperative learning activities, vocabulary, and the use of visual clues. Teachers also place an emphasis on developing the students’ habits of organization and study skills. Teachers may use sheltered instruction within a variety of program models (e.g. immersion, pull out, team-teaching). Teachers may use sheltered instruction in a mainstream class to support English language learners, or a class may be specially designed, such as "Sheltered U.S. History." Such classes may include only English language learners or English language learners and English-fluent peers.
The Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol is a research-based observation instrument that is used to measure sheltered instruction (Guarino, Echevarria, Short, Schick, Forbes, & Rueda, 2001) and provides a model for lesson planning.
Gardner's Multiple Intelligences:
Verbal/Linguistic - increasing vocabulary through: text, lecture, audio tapes, journals & discussion Logical/Mathematical - charts, graphs, problem-solving, deductive reasoning, seeing patterns and relationships
Visual/Spatial - graphic organizers, lists, charts, graphs, paintings, form and construction, imagination
Bodily/Kinesthetic - drawing, dance, sports, comprehension through action, hands-on work, role-playing
Musical/Rhythmic - recordings (both musical and spoken language), written sensory response to music, singing, playing a musical instrument, video - dance and music
Interpersonal - work and communication with others, cooperative learning, empathize with others, teamwork, listen to others, negotiate with others
Intrapersonal - self-awareness, abilities and limitations, concentration, awareness, ability to see self as others see her, work effectively through large and small goals
Vyogtsky Theories - Cooperative Learning & Zone of Proximal Development
• Cooperative Learning: Cooperative Learning defines teaching methods in which pairs or small groups of learners work together to accomplish a shared goal. The goal is for cooperation of learners to maximize their own and each other are learning. • Zone of Proximal Development: Learning through socialization where individuals are able to gain from the experience of their peers or teacher that they would not be able to on their own. The zone bridges gap between what is known and what can be known.
Hands-On: Refers to the many activities and realia that LEP/ESL students can engage with bodily.
Controlled Vocabulary: A list of the key concepts in an article or selection of literature that the students are assigned for reading. The goal is to alert students with terms that may not already be familiar in order for them to understand the concepts involved in the reading.
Scaffolding: Scaffolding is a metaphor which demonstrates the process of gathering knowledge of concepts. Layers of information are gathered and stored to ensure a sound basis for continued learning.
Authentic Assessment: Authentic Assessment is the practice of evaluating a student on their final product and the skills developed through its completion instead of evaluation of individual skills.
Heterogeneous Grouping: Refers to the grouping of students in classes by ability range instead of by grade/age-level.