Ferry connections with Cheboygan, on the Lower Peninsula mainland, dock at Pointe aux Pins. Bois Blanc is also served by a paved airstrip in the interior of the island with facilities for private planes.
Bois Blanc was ceded by the local Anishinaabe (Chippewa) to the U.S. federal government with the Treaty of Greenville in 1795. After extensive use as a source of kilned lime and firewood for Mackinac Island and other local frontier settlements, Bois Blanc was settled in the late 1800s as a summer resort community. The Bois Blanc Island Light lighthouse (1867) survives on the northern shore of the island; it is not open to the public.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the township has a total area of 49.0 square miles (126.9 km²), of which, 35.3 square miles (91.3 km²) of it is land and 13.7 square miles (35.6 km²) of it (28.04%) is water.
There were 42 households out of which 7.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 35.7% were married couples living together, 2.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 59.5% were non-families. 47.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 1.69 and the average family size was 2.41.
In the township the population was spread out with 7.0% under the age of 18, 2.8% from 18 to 24, 11.3% from 25 to 44, 56.3% from 45 to 64, and 22.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 57 years. For every 100 females there were 102.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 106.3 males.
The median income for a household in the township was $40,833, and the median income for a family was $46,250. Males had a median income of $23,750 versus $0 for females. The per capita income for the township was $27,131. There were no families and 3.8% of the population living below the poverty line, including no under eighteens and 14.3% of those over 64.