This settlement of the Kambojas was in neighborhood of the Daradas and is located on the southern side of Hindu Kush in the region, which later formed parts of the Greek strapy of Paropamisadae. In the east, it is known to have extended as far as Rajapura (Rajauri) located in west Kashmir, as attested by Mahabharata
The capital city of Kamboja was at Rajauri (Dr B. C. Law, Dr R. C. Majumdar, Dr H. C. Raychaudhury).
The Lohas, Param-Kambojas and the northern Rishikas were all cognate tribes, and all were located in trans-Himalayan (i.e trans-Hindukush) territories. The distant northerly section of the northern Rishikas were known as "Parama Rishikas" . Another settlement of the Rishikas somewhere between river Tapti and Godavari, in western India is also attested in Puranic and epic literature. They were probably located on or south of river Tapti, west of Vidarbhas, north of the Mulakas, east of Soparka and south of Anupadesa (in modern Maharashtra).
The northern Rishikas were apparently located towards Sogdiana/Fargana territories. According to classical writings, the vast region beyond Mount Hemodos (i.e north of Hindukush/Himalaya) was known as Scythia . The same was known as Sakadvipa in ancient Sanskrit literature.
Scholars like Jayachandra Vidyalankar, Moti Chandra etc locate Kambojas in Badakshan, as neighbors to Bahlikas and say that the Daradas had come as allies of Kambojas in the Badakshan battle with Arjuna. After defeating the Kambojas, Arjuna meets the forces of Lohas, Parama Kambojas and Rishikas, in north-easterly territories. Mahabharata attests the Lohas, Parama Kambojas and Rishikas as allied (sahitan) tribes .
Jayachandra Vidyalankar identifies Parama Kamboja with Ghalcha speaking Yaghnobi regions at the head waters of Zerafshan river, in old Sogdiana, a tract of country considerably to the north of the Pamirs and separated from them by the hill states subordinate to Bokhara . H. C. Seth identifies the mountainous region between the Oxus and Jaxartes (old Sogdiana) as the locale of the ancient Kambojas . This primarily forms the Parama Kambojas of the Mahabharata.
The Parama-Kambojas were located in Pamirs/Badakshan and as far as Zeravshan valley in Sogdiana (See: Kamboja Location). Since this region was beyond Mount Hemados/Himaos, it apparently fell in Scythic cultural belt. The Parama Kambojas, therefore, were pure Iranians following Irano-Scythian culture and customs rather than the Indo-Aryan. The capital city of the Parama-Kamboja was probably at Darwaz in Pamirs.
It is interesting to note that like Madras/Uttara Madras, Kurus/Uttara Kurus, Kambojas/ Parama Kambojas, there were also two settlements of the Yonas (Yavanas)--- the Yona and the Parama Yona . Further, there is also an ancient reference to China and Parama China in Valmiki Ramayana .
The Yona probably referred to Archosian Yavanas while the Parama-Yona to the Bactrian Yavanas. Similarly China probably referred to little Tibet, while the Parama China (also known as Maha-China: see Manasollasa) referred to the main China.
The prefix Parama- can be interpretted in the sense of (1) Uttara or northern (2) Furthest or beyond and (3) Greater/supreme.
The Parama- with a sense of northern/Uttara sounds logical since the Parama- branch of the Kambojas was located in Uttara or north direction to Kambojas. Moreover, it also sounds similar to Uttara-Madra and Uttara-Kuru. The Parama- in the sense of Greater also makes good sense since the trans-Hindukush branch the Kambojas was original and perhaps the Greater or bigger section of the Kambojas . Some scholars like Dr Fauja Singh, Dr L. M. Joshi have interpretted Parama- in the sense of "beyond", which also looks senseful since Parama-Kamboja was located beyond the Kamboja, when seen from India. Dr J. Muir interprets Parama Kamboja as the Furthest Kamboja while others call it Distant Kamboja . Some writers however, translate it as Eastern Kamboja .
Thus, the Dasam-Granth authors seem to be aware of the existence of two ancient Kamboja settlements.
Ptolemy also refers to another people/region which he calls Ambautai which he locates on the southern side of Hindukush in the Paropamisadae .
Ptolemy refers yet to another people/region he calls Komoi, whom he locates in the mountains of Sogdiana north of Bactria/Badakshan. It has been suggested that the Komoi of Ptolemy also indicate the same people as the Kambojas of the Sanskrit texts. The Komoi is Ptolemian transtliteration of Kamboi. Kamboi comes from Kamboika or Kamboyka which is corruption of Kambojika . Kambojika is Pali equivalent of Sanskrit Kamboja. Pali texts numerously write Kamboja as well as Kambojaka/Kambojika. Scholars like Dr H. C. Seth observe: "The mountainous highlands where Jaxartes and many other rivers which meet this great river arise, are called by Ptolemy as the "the Highlands of Komdei". Ammianus Marcellinus also call these Sogdian mountains as Komedas. The word Komedai and Komedas suggest Kom-desa or land of Kome. We learn from Ptolemy that a tribe variously called by him as Komaroi, Komedai, Khomaroi and Komoi was wide spread in the Highlands of Bactriana and Sogdiana. It is difficult to say, at present, how far the vast tracts of land on either side of Oxus called as Kyzyl Kum or Kizil Kum, Kok-kum and Kara Kum may yet bear the traces of the name of this once a great and powerful people" . These scholars have placed the ancient Kambojas in a vast area, in the doab of Oxus and Jaxartes, in the southern tip of Sakadvipa or Scythia. The Komdei of Ptolemy or the Kumudadvipa of the Puranic texts, obviously represents the Parama Kambojas of the Mahabharata .
Thus, it looks likely that the Kamboja clans were spread in Kabol valley in Paropamisadae, in Badakshan/Pamir as well as up to the highlands of Sogdiana. The Yagnobi, a dialect of the modern Galcha language spoken in/around the head waters of river Zeravshan (in Zeravshan valley), up in Sogdiana still contains the relics of ancient Kamboji verb Shavti used in the sense to go .
Ptolemian Komdei is Komed or Komdesh or Kamdesh (?); from Kambodesh (?), probably "Kambojdesh". It is Kiumito or Kumito of Hiun Tsang and Kumed or Kumadh of the Muslim writers, Kiumiche of Wu'kong, Kumi of T'ang and Cambothi, Kambuson and Komedon of Greek writers. Al-Maqidisi in his book Al-Muqhni calls the people of this territory as Kumiji which apparently is equivalent to Sanskrit Kamboj . The root Kam of the Sanskrit name Kamboja is also reflected in the Kama valley, a region lying between the Khyber Pass and Jalalabad; in the place names like Kama-daka, Kamma-Shilman, Kama-bela of Kabol; in the Kamdesh or Kambrom, Kamich, Kama and Kamu & Kamatol of the Kunar and Bashgul valleys; and also in the vast expanses of region called Kazal-Kam and Kara-Kam lying on either side of the Oxus, north of Hindukush in parts of Turkmenistan & Uzbekistan. Thus, the Ptolemian terms Kamoi and Komdei or Hiun Tsang's Kiumito exactly also refer to the Trans-Hindukush territories which region is what Mahabharata refers to as Parama Kamboja i.e a Kamboja lying beyond the Kamboja of Kabol valley .
Aitareya Brahmana further attests that the trans-Himalyan Uttara Madra and Uttara Kuru nations were republican. As the Param-Kamboja (i.e the original Kamboja) was a close neighbor both to the Uttaramadras as wel as the Uttarakurus in trans-Himalyan territories, it can, therefore, be fairly conjectured that the Parama-Kambojas were also a republican people, most probably following a Rajashabdopajivin (king consul) type of republicanism, where the king was only a title for the commander-in-chief of the military confederation . Several republics of the Kambojas are attested in the Mahabharata . Kautiliya also attests the Kamboja Sanghas and Corporations . The Kambojas were also a self-governing political unit (republic) under the Maurya Emperors. .