As of the census of 2000, there were 9,846 people, 4,149 households, and 2,609 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,979.4 people per square mile (764.9/km²). There were 4,747 housing units at an average density of 954.3/sq mi (368.8/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 87.00% White, 7.17% African American, 1.16% Native American, 0.62% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 1.10% from other races, and 2.95% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.84% of the population.
There were 4,149 households out of which 30.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.8% were married couples living together, 12.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 37.1% were non-families. 32.7% of all households were made up of individuals, and 15.2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.32, and the average family size was 2.93.
In the city the population was spread out, with 25.7% under the age of 18, 8.9% from 18 to 24, 26.1% from 25 to 44, 21.3% from 45 to 64, and 18.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 89.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.9 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $29,574, and the median income for a family was $37,134. Males had a median income of $26,552 versus $20,017 for females. The per capita income for the city was $15,496. About 11.4% of families and 13.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.7% of those under age 18 and 13.2% of those age 65 or over.
Founded on land taken from the Osage Nation by a treaty of questionable reputation, Independence was home to many families made wealthy by the oil and gas boom of the turn-of-the-century. Successful merchants like Henry Baden and August Zutz and bankers like A.C. Stich and George Guernsey were also prominent in local society. Ornate Victorian homes still attest to the prosperity of pre-Depression days. Best known is oil magnate Harry F. Sinclair, who founded the Sinclair Oil Company with its dinosaur logo. Sinclair also became embroiled in the Teapot Dome scandal of the Harding presidency. The town once featured a vitrified brick factory, a glass factory [the Midland Window Glass Company, which had a small "company town"], the Uhrich planing mill, the Atchison Revolving Door factory, a portland cement plant, iron works and other industries. Independence Community College was founded in 1925. By the 1930s, Independence boasted 20 restaurants, over 40 retail groceries, 12 meeting halls and 4 hardware stores . Politically, the town voted mostly Republican-- in contrast to [Democratic] Coffeyville, KS-- a rival city of 12,000 located 15 miles to the south. From 1910 to 1947, Independence was connected to surrounding communities by the Union Traction Company which provided interurban electric rail service and 4 street trolley lines. The Santa Fe and Union Pacific railroads also provided steam/diesel rail service from two separate stations. Kansas Gov. Alfred Landon hailed from Independence, as did the famous 1950s playwright William Inge.
African Americans numbered over 1000 by the 1930s, and they attended 5 houses of worship including Quinn's AME Chapel, St. John's Baptist Church, the Maple Street Baptist Church, the Holiness Church and St. John's Methodist Episcopal. Blacks went to the Independence public schools but played on segregated sports teams, and the electric interurban railway's downtown waiting room had a "colored only" section. At the local Booth Theatre, African Americans sat up in the balcony, and ushers would remove white children if they attempted to sit upstairs with black patrons. Riverside Park featured a "Jim Crow" swimming pool as well as one designated for whites. The local Buick auto dealer was proud of the "elite" product his company offered, and pointedly refused to sell Buicks to African American customers. The city had witnessed a near-lynching on Dec. 16, 1920 that escalated into a gun battle followed by curfews and martial law. The violence injured several white vigilantes accidently shot by their fellow mob members, and a dozen bullets fired at point-blank range cost a black WWI veteran, Arthur Harper, his life. At the Mount Hope Cemetery, blacks were buried in their own section, as were Roman Catholics [mostly Irish & German] and German Lutherans. There was no single black neighborhood, but African Americans tended to live in enclaves including a SW region (around south 17th, 18th & 19th streets) and the Aganippe Park area located SE near the cement plant.
Another distinct community in Independence was/is the German Lutherans, who organized Zion Lutheran Church and School during the 1880s. This group eventually numbered in the hundreds, with most tracing their ancestry back to villages in the Kingdom of Hanover [now Lower Saxony]. Other families moved west from settlements in Missouri-- especially the town of Cole Camp in Benton County [another Hanoverian settlement of pre-Civil War vintage]. Some households also hailed from the Baltic coastal region of East Friesland. In the 19th century, many spoke Low German dialect [plattdüütsch] at home, standard German [hochdeutsch] at church/school and English with their Anglophone neighbors. The last German-language church service occurred in 1941, and the last local German-language gravestone inscription dates from the 1980s. Intermarriage with non-German-Lutherans only became commonplace after World War II. There was no exclusively German neighborhood in Independence, but socially the Lutherans remained a tightknit group whose members did not join clubs like the Lions, Masons, or Rotary before the 1950s. In recent years, a public German Fest has been held each October... the only celebration of its kind in southeast Kansas.
Mickey Mantle played minor league ball at the Independence field.
JAPANESE CARS PILING UP 20 PERCENT PRICE RISE SLOWS SALES; ANNUAL EXPORT QUOTA MAY NOT BE MET WAYNE SCHENK WANTS TO BUY YOUR CAR. ''I BELIEVE I CAN OFFER YOU MORE MONEY FOR YOUR CAR AS A TRADE-IN THAN PROBABLY ANY OTHER NEW-CAR DEALER IN ALL OF NEW ENGLAND,'' SCHENK SAYS IN A LETTER TO SELECTED CAR OWNERS. THAT'S NOT AN UNUSUAL COME-ON FOR A CHEVROLET SALESMAN, BUT IT IS A VASTLY DIFFERENT APPROACH FOR A NEW-CAR DEALERSHIP THE LIKES OF HONDA ON COMMONWEALTH AVENUE IN BOSTON, WHERE SCHENK IS GENERAL MANAGER. SCHENK, WHO HAS BEEN IN BOSTON FOR ONLY FOUR MONTHS, SAYS THE LETTER HE SENDS TO CAR OWNERS ENCOURAGING THEM TO TRADE IN THEIR MODEL FOR A HONDA IS WRITTEN IN THE SAME FORMAT THAT HE USED IN FOREIGN CAR-FRENZIED CALIFORNIA TO SELL BUICKS. IN RECENT YEARS JAPANESE CAR DEALERS HAVE BENEFITED FROM THE COMBINATION OF STRONG DEMAND AND THE SUPPLY-CONTROLLING VOLUNTARY RESTRAINT AGREEMENT. BUT WITH THE PRICES OF JAPANESE CARS HAVING RISEN 20 PERCENT AS THE YEN APPRECIATED 60 PERCENT AGAINST THE DOLLAR SINCE OCTOBER 1985, THE JAPANESE AUTOMAKERS ARE IN DANGER OF NOT REACHING THE LIMITS OF 2.3 MILLION CARS THEY ARE ALLOWED TO SELL IN THE 12-MONTH PERIOD ENDING THIS MONTH. LIKEWISE, DEALERS FACE THE PROSPECT OF FINDING THEMSELVES -- ALONG WITH AMERICAN CAR DEALERS -- WITH MORE CARS THAN THEY CAN SELL. JAPANESE CAR SALES FELL 5 PERCENT IN THE FIRST THREE MONTHS OF THIS YEAR, AND INVENTORIES LEAPED TO A 61-DAY SUPPLY, MORE THAN DOUBLE THE RATE LAST YEAR, ACCORDING TO AUTOMOTIVE NEWS, AN AUTO INDUSTRY TRADE PUBLICATION. MEANWHILE, JAPANESE AUTOMAKERS AND THE AMERICAN DEALERS WHO SELL THEM HAVE FOUND THEIR PROFITS AND COMMISSIONS DEFLATING. NISSAN MOTOR CORP. POSTED A NON-CONSOLIDATED OPERATING LOSS FOR THE FIRST HALF OF ITS FISCAL YEAR, ENDED IN SEPTEMBER 1986, WHICH MARKED THE COMPANY'S FIRST SUCH LOSS IN 37 YEARS. SUBARU OF AMERICA, THE US-BASED MARKETER OF THE JAPANESE AUTOMAKER, HAS ALREADY FORECAST A DOWNTURN IN PROFITS FOR THIS YEAR. WHAT ALL THIS MEANS IS THAT THE SALE OF JAPANESE AUTOMOBILES IS BECOMING A BUYER'S MARKET AND JAPANESE AUTOMAKERS ARE IN FOR A STRUGGLE. ''EVERYBODY IS GETTING SQUEEZED. EVERYBODY HAS TO MAKE SURE THEY ARE DOING THE BEST THEY CAN,'' SAID DAVID KOHL, A TRANSPORTATION SPECIALIST AT THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN. JAPANESE CAR DEALERS HAVE RESPONDED BY COMING DOWN FROM THE HIGH HORSES THEY RODE PREVIOUSLY WHEN BUYERS DID NOT ALWAYS HAVE THE CHOICE OF COLOR AND OPTIONS AND NEARLY ALWAYS HAD TO WAIT AT LEAST SIX WEEKS OR MORE FOR DELIVERY. THE PREMIUMS AND THE TAKE-IT-OR-LEAVE-IT ATTITUDE ARE GONE. THEY NOW ARE TAKING THE ''YOU CAN'T AFFORD TO PASS UP THIS DEAL, WE'RE SELLING EVERY CAR AT A LOSS AND MAKING IT UP IN VOLUME,'' APPROACH, AND STEALING THE CUT-RATE THUNDER THAT HAS PROPELLED SALES OF AMERICAN CARS FOR THE LAST TWO YEARS. ''THERE IS A LOT MORE CATERING,'' SAID BENJAMIN KAYE, GENERAL SALES MANAGER AT BOB BREST BUICK NISSAN IN LYNN. ''THE DEALERS ARE DEALING WITH CUSTOMERS MORE RESPECTFULLY.'' KAYE SAID STEPPED-UP ADVE