Selangor (Jawi script: سلاڠور, population 7.2 million) is one of the 13 states of Malaysia. It is on the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia and is bordered by Perak to the north, Pahang to the east, Negeri Sembilan to the south and the Strait of Malacca to the west. It completely surrounds the federal territories of Kuala Lumpur and Putrajaya.
The origin of the name Selangor is lost in history, although some sources claim the name to have come from the Malay word selangau, 'a large fly', most probably due to the abundance of flies in the marshes along the Selangor River in the state's north-west. Another more plausible theory claims the state's name is derived from the term Selang Ur meaning "land of the straits" (ur means "land" in Tamil, selang means "straits" in the Malay language).
Selangor is also known by its Arabic honorific, Darul Ehsan ("Abode of Sincerity").
The state is a hereditary constitutional monarchy, of which the reigning Sultan (since 2001) is Sultan Sharafuddin Idris Shah. The Menteri Besar (chief executive of the state government) is currently Tan Sri Abdul Khalid Ibrahim, of the Parti Keadilan Rakyat since 10 March 2008.
The state capital is Shah Alam and the royal capital is Klang. A third major urban centre is Petaling Jaya which was awarded city status on 20 June 2006. Hence, Selangor is one of only two Malaysian states with more than one city; the other being Sarawak.
Selangor is also the richest state in Malaysia in terms of GDP and second richest in terms of GDP per capita (at RM18,157 or US$4,907), behind Penang. On 27 August 2005, Selangor was officially declared the first developed state in Malaysia by the then state government.
In the 15th century, Selangor was ruled by the Sultanate of Malacca
. After the fall of Malacca to the Portuguese
in 1511, the area became hotly disputed between the Portuguese, Johor
. When the Dutch
displaced the Portuguese from Malacca in 1641, they brought in Bugis mercenaries
, who eventually established the present sultanate in 1740. In many districts, Bugis settlers displaced the Minangkabau
settlers from Sumatra
, who had established themselves in Selangor some 100 years previously. In the 19th century, the economy boomed due to the exploitation of huge tin
reserves and the growing importance of rubber
. This attracted a large influx of Chinese
migrants. Chinese secret clan societies, allied with Selangor chiefs fought for control of the tin mines
, and the increasing violence created social and economic havoc. It also opened a window of opportunity for the British
, who forced the Sultan of Selangor
to accept a British Resident
in 1874. Under the stability imposed by the British, Selangor again prospered. In 1896, largely through the coordination of the Resident Frank Swettenham
, Selangor united with Negri Sembilan
to form the Federated Malay States
, with its capital in Kuala Lumpur
. The Federated Malay States evolved into the Federation of Malaya
in 1948 and the Federation of Malaysia in 1963. In 1970, Selangor relinquished the city of Kuala Lumpur to the federal government. Putrajaya also became a federal territory in the mid-1990s.
Selangor currently is the richest, most industrialized and most urbanized of all Malaysian states. The Menteri Besar of Selangor declared Selangor as a developed state on 27 August 2005.
Population and demographics
Selangor is Malaysia's most populous state, with the nation's biggest conurbation
, the Klang Valley
. Selangor's geographical position in the centre of Peninsular Malaysia
contributed to the state's rapid development as Malaysia's transportation and industrial hub, which in turn attracts migrants from other states as well as overseas, especially from Indonesia
, the Philippines
, and China
. The influx of illegal immigrants
, particularly from Indonesia, has further contributed to Selangor's rapid population growth.
Selangor has a population of 4,850,000 (2006 ; the state's ethnic composition consisted of Malays 52.9%, Chinese 27.8%, Indians 13.3% and other ethnic groups 6%.
Selangor's main population centres are Petaling Jaya (2007 est. pop. 550,000), Shah Alam (500,000), Klang (995,000) and Subang Jaya-UEP Subang Jaya (400,000). Other major centres include:
of the State of Selangor came into force on the 26 of February 1959. The constitution is separated into two parts titled;
- " THE FIRST PART OF THE LAWS OF THE CONSTITUTION "
- " THE SECOND PART OF THE LAWS OF THE CONSTITUTION "
Under the 1959 constitution, Selangor is a constitutional monarchy.
The Sultan of Selangor is the constitutional Ruler of Selangor. The role, powers and duties of the Sultan are set forth in the constitution of 1959. The constitution proclaims that the office of Sultan is vested with the executive power of the state, is the Head of the religion of Islam in the state and the fountain of honours and dignities in the state.
This position is hereditary and can only be held by a member of Selangor's royal family. The current ruler is His Royal Highness Sultan Sharafuddin Idris Shah, who has held this position since 2001.
State Executive Council
The State Executive Council, which along with the Sultan is Selangor's executive branch of government, was established by the constitution of 1959. It is composed of the Menteri Besar
, who is its chairman and Selangor's head of government, and ten other members. The Menteri Besar and other members of the council are appointed by the Sultan of Selangor from members of the State Assembly. The current Menteri Besar is Tan Sri
Abdul Khalid Ibrahim, of the Parti Keadilan Rakyat (PKR, or People's Justice Party)
Selangor State Assembly
The state also has a legislative branch, called the state assembly. It is similar to the Parliament but is limited to making laws relating to the state. Its members are elected in elections which are usually held simultaneously with federal elections. The term of each state assembly member is limited to five years. The state assembly must be dissolved before or once it expires its term for a fresh election to elect its members.
Menteri Besar of Selangor since 1949
Main article: List of Chief Ministers of Selangor
- 1949 - 1949: Hamzah Abdulah
- 1949 - 1953: YAM Raja Tun Uda Raja Mohamad
- 1953 - 1954: Othman Mohamad
- 1955 - 1956: Dr. Abdul Aziz Abdul Majid
- 1956 - 1958: Tuan Muhammad Imail Abdul Latiff
- 1958 - 1959: Abdul Jamil Rais
- 1959 - 1964: Datuk Abu Bakar Baginda
- 1964 - 1976: Datuk Harun Idris
- 1976 - 1982: Dato Hormat Rafei
- 1982 - 1986: Dato Ahmad Razali Mohd Ali
- 1986 - 1997: Tan Sri Muhammad Muhammad Taib
- 1997 - 2000: Tan Sri Abu Hassan Omar
- 2000 - 2008: Dato Seri Dr.Mohd Khir Toyo
- 2008 - Now : Tan Sri Abdul Khalid Ibrahim
List of districts
Selangor is divided into 9 administrative districts, namely:
List of local authorities
There are 12 local authorities in Selangor, namely:
- Majlis Daerah Hulu Selangor (MDHS)
- Majlis Perbandaran Subang Jaya (MPSJ)
- Majlis Daerah Sabak Bernam (MDSB)
- Majlis Perbandaran Kajang (MPKj)
- Majlis Daerah Kuala Selangor (MDKS)
- Majlis Perbandaran Klang (MPK)
- Majlis Perbandaran Selayang (MPS)
- Majlis Bandaraya Shah Alam (MBSA)
- Majlis Bandaraya Petaling Jaya (MBPJ)
- Majlis Perbandaran Ampang Jaya (MPAJ)
- Majlis Perbandaran Sepang (MPSpg)
- Majlis Daerah Kuala Langat (MDKL)
The traditional culture of Selangor's Malay majority is influenced by those of Bugis
Selangor's population also has Chinese and Indian influence; those two having larger minority populations.
Being the most developed state in Malaysia, Selangor also receives a lot of Western influence.
The traditional Malay cuisine in Selangor has received influences from Johor
Rojak Klang, Lontong Klang and Mee Bandung are famous cuisines in Klang and Shah Alam (Note: Mee Bandung is also touted to have originated from Johor). Other famous dishes include Mee Jawa (which is similar to Mee Rebus in Johor), Satay Kajang, Ketam Darul Ehsan, Kuah Asam Pedas and Sayur Masak Rebung.
Klang bak kut teh is famous among the Chinese population. It is a herbal pork soup which is eaten during breakfast, lunch, and dinner.
Coastal towns such as Klang and Kuala Selangor are also famed for seafood.