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Communications system

In telecommunication, a communications system is a collection of individual communications networks, transmission systems, relay stations, tributary stations, and data terminal equipment (DTE) usually capable of interconnection and interoperation to form an integrated whole. The components of a communications system serve a common purpose, are technically compatible, use common procedures, respond to controls, and operate in unison. Telecommunications is a method of communication (e.g., for sports broadcasting, mass media, journalism, etc.).

A communications subsystem is a functional unit or operational assembly that is smaller than the larger assembly under consideration. Examples of communications subsystems in the Defense Communications System (DCS) are (a) a satellite link with one Earth terminal in CONUS and one in Europe, (b) the interconnect facilities at each Earth terminal of the satellite link, and (c) an optical fiber cable with its driver and receiver in either of the interconnect facilities. Communication subsystem (b) basically consists of a receiver, frequency translator and a transmitter. It also contains transponders and other transponders in it and communication satellite communication system receives signals from the antenna subsystem.

Examples

An optical communication system is any form of telecommunication that uses light as the transmission medium. Optical communications consists of a transmitter, which encodes a message into an optical signal, a channel, which carries the signal to its destination, and a receiver, which reproduces the message from the received optical signal. Fiber-optic communication systems transmit information from one place to another by sending light through an optical fiber. The light forms an electromagnetic carrier wave that is modulated to carry information. First developed in the 1970s, fiber-optic communication systems have revolutionized the telecommunications industry and played a major role in the advent of the Information Age. Because of its advantages over electrical transmission, the use of optical fiber has largely replaced copper wire communications in core networks in the developed world.

A radio communication system is composed of several communications subsystems that give exterior communications capablilities. A radio communication system comprises a transmitting conductor in which electrical oscillations or currents are produced and which is arranged to cause such currents or oscillations to be propagated through the free space medium from one point to another remote therefrom and a receiving conductor at such distant point adapted to be excited by the oscillations or currents propagated from the transmitter.

Power line communications systems operate by impressing a modulated carrier signal on the wiring system. Different types of powerline communications use different frequency bands, depending on the signal transmission characteristics of the power wiring used. Since the power wiring system was originally intended for transmission of AC power, the power wire circuits have only a limited ability to carry higher frequencies. The propagation problem is a limiting factor for each type of power line communications.

A duplex communication system is a system composed of two connected parties or devices which can communicate with one another in both directions. The term duplex is not used when describing communication between more than two parties or devices. Duplex systems are employed in nearly all communications networks, either to allow for a communication "two-way street" between two connected parties or to provide a "reverse path" for the monitoring and remote adjustment of equipment in the field.

A tactical communications system is a communications system that (a) is used within, or in direct support of, tactical forces, (b) is designed to meet the requirements of changing tactical situations and varying environmental conditions, (c) provides securable communications, such as voice, data, and video, among mobile users to facilitate command and control within, and in support of, tactical forces, and (d) usually requires extremely short installation times, usually on the order of hours, in order to meet the requirements of frequent relocation.

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