Because this growth usually ruptures the epidermis of the stem or roots, plants with secondary growth usually also develop a cork cambium. The cork cambium gives rise to thickened cork cells to protect the surface of the plant and reduce water loss. If this is kept up over many years, this process may produce a layer of cork. In the case of the cork oak it will yield harvestable cork.
Primary growth in roots and stems is growth in length and occurs in all vascular plants. Secondary growth occurs mainly in many dicots and gymnosperms. Monocots usually lack secondary growth. If they do have secondary growth, it differs from that described above.
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