second adventism


[ad-ven-tist, ad-ven-]
The term Adventist generally refers to someone who believes in the Second Advent of Jesus (popularly known as the Second coming) in the tradition of the Millerites.

The Adventist family of churches are regarded today as conservative Protestants.

While they hold much in common, their theology differs on whether the intermediate state is unconscious sleep or consciousness, whether the ultimate punishment of the wicked is annihilation or eternal torment, the nature of immortality, whether or not the wicked are resurrected, and whether the sanctuary of refers to the one in heaven or on earth. The movement has encouraged the examination of the Old Testament, leading some to observe the Sabbath and others to use the name "Jehovah" for God.


Modern Adventism began as an inter-denominational movement. Its most vocal leader was William Miller. Between 50,000 and 100,000 people in the United States supported Miller's predictions of Christ's return. After the "Great Disappointment" of October 22, 1844 many people in the movement gave up on Adventism, some gave up on Christianity, whereas others gave up on predicting dates for the Advent (second coming of Jesus).

Albany Conference

The Albany Conference of 1845 was attended by 61 delegates. Following this meeting, the "Millerites" then became known as "Adventists" or "Second Adventists". The delegates couldn't agree on theology, and four groups emerged from the conference: The Evangelical Adventists, The Life and Advent Union, the Advent Christian Church, and the Seventh-day Adventist Church.

The main body organized as the American Millennial Association, a portion of which was later known as the Evangelical Adventist Church. Unique among the Adventists, they believed in an eternal hell and consciousness in death. Their main publication was The Advent Herald (later called Messiah’s Herald), and another was the Signs of the Times. They declined in numbers, and by 1916 their name did not appear in the United States Census of Religious Bodies. It has diminished to almost non-existence today.

The Life and Advent Union was founded by George Storrs in 1863. He had established The Bible Examiner in 1842. It merged with the Adventist Christian Union in 1964.

The Advent Christian Church officially formed in 1861, and grew rapidly at first. It declined a little over the 20th century. Small splinter Primitive Advent Christian Church from a few congregations in West Virginia. The Advent Christians publish the four magazines The Advent Christian Witness, Advent Christian News, Advent Christian Missions and Maranatha. They also operate a liberal arts college at Aurora, Illinois; and a Bible College at Lennox, Massachusetts.

The Seventh-day Adventist Church officially formed in 1863. It believes in the sanctity of the seventh-day Sabbath as a holy day for worship. It published the Aventist Review and Sabbath Herald. It grew to have a large wordlwide membership and a significant network of medical and educational institutions.

Miller did not join any of the movements, and spent the last few years of his life working for unity, before dying in 1849. Charles Taze Russell, founder of the Jehovah's Witnesses, attended a meeting by Jonas Wendell and was partially impacted by Adventist beliefs.


The Handbook of Denominations in the United States, 12th edn., describes the following churches as "Adventist and Sabbatarian (Hebraic) Churches":

Seventh-day Adventist

The Seventh-day Adventist Church is a denomination which, as its name suggests, is best known for its teaching that Saturday, the seventh day of the week, is the Sabbath and is the appropriate day for worship. The denomination grew out of the Millerite movement in the United States during the middle part of the 19th century, and was formally established in May 1863.

Seventh Day Adventist Reform Movement

The Seventh Day Adventist Reform Movement is a division from the Seventh-day Adventist Church created by disagreement over military service on the Sabbath day during World War I.

Davidian Seventh-day Adventist Association

The Davidians (originally named Shepherd's Rod) are made up primarily of disfellowshipped former members of the Seventh-day Adventist Church. They were originally known as the Shepherd's Rod and are still referred to as such. The group derives its name from two books on Bible doctrine written by their founder, Victor Houteff, in 1929. In these books (The Shepherd's Rod Book Volumes 1 and 2) Houteff made reference to verse 9 in the sixth chapter of the biblical book of Micah:
"The Lord's voice crieth unto the city, and the man of wisdom shall see thy name: Hear ye the rod, and who hath appointed it."

Advent Christian Church

The Advent Christian Church is a "first-day" body of Adventist Christians founded on the teachings of William Miller.

Primitive Advent Christian Church

The Primitive Advent Christian Church is a small body of Adventist Christians which separated from the Advent Christian Church. They have a common early history. Adventists who had adopted the "conditional immortality" views of Charles F. Hudson and George Storrs formed the Advent Christian Association in Salem, Massachusetts in 1860.

Church of God General Conference

Many denominations known as "Church of God" have Adventist origins. The Church of God General Conference is an Adventist Christian body which is also known as the Church of God of the Abrahamic Faith and the Church of God General Conference (Morrow, GA). The Church of the Blessed Hope, some of whose congregations use the name Church of God of the Abrahamic Faith are a separate denomination.

United Seventh-Day Brethren

The United Seventh-Day Brethren is a small sabbatarian Adventist body.

In 1947, several individuals and two independent congregations within the Church of God Adventist movement came together to form the United Seventh-Day Brethren, seeking to increase fellowship and to combine their efforts in evangelism, publications, and other ministries.

Church of God (Seventh Day)

The Church of God (Seventh-Day) separated from Seventh-day Adventists in the 1860s. The Worldwide Church of God splintered from this. The Church of God (7th Day) split off in 1933.


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