is the family
of the mackerels
, and bonitos
, and thus includes many of the most important and familiar food fishes
. The family consists of about 55 species in 15 genera and two subfamilies. All species are Scombrinae, except Butterfly kingfish - which is the sole member of subfamily Gasterochismatinae.
Scombrids have two dorsal fins, and a series of finlets between the rear dorsal fin and behind the anal fin. The caudal fin is strongly divided and rigid, with a slender, ridged, base. The first (spiny) dorsal fin and the pelvic fins are normally retracted into body grooves. Species length varies from the 20 cm length of the island mackerel to the 458 cm recorded for the immense northern bluefin tuna.
Scombrids are generally predators of the open ocean, and capable of considerable speed.
Some members of the family, in particular the tunas, are notable for being endothermic (warm-blooded).
Jordan, Evermann and Clark (1930) divide these fishes into the four families Cybiidae, Katsuwonidae, Scombridae, and Thunnidae, but this article follows FishBase
in placing them in the single family Scombridae.
There are about fifty species in fourteen genera:
- Genus Acanthocybium
- Genus Allothunnus
- Genus Auxis
- Genus Cybiosarda
- Genus Euthynnus
- Genus Gasterochisma
- Genus Grammatorcynus
- Genus Gymnosarda
- Genus Katsuwonus
- Genus Orcynopsis
- Genus Rastrelliger
- Genus Sarda
- Australian bonito, Sarda australis (Macleay, 1881).
- Eastern Pacific bonito, Sarda chiliensis chiliensis (Cuvier, 1832).
- Pacific bonito, Sarda chiliensis lineolata (Girard, 1858).
- Striped bonito, Sarda orientalis (Temminck & Schlegel, 1844).
- Atlantic bonito, Sarda sarda (Bloch, 1793).
- Genus Scomber
- Genus Scomberomorus
- Serra Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus brasiliensis Collette, Russo & Zavala-Camin, 1978.
- King mackerel, Scomberomorus cavalla (Cuvier, 1829).
- Narrow-barred Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus commerson (Lacépède, 1800).
- Monterrey Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus concolor (Lockington, 1879).
- Indo-Pacific king mackerel, Scomberomorus guttatus (Bloch & Schneider, 1801).
- Korean seerfish, Scomberomorus koreanus (Kishinouye, 1915).
- Streaked seerfish, Scomberomorus lineolatus (Cuvier, 1829).
- Atlantic Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus maculatus (Couch, 1832).
- Papuan seerfish, Scomberomorus multiradiatus Munro, 1964.
- Australian spotted mackerel, Scomberomorus munroi Collette & Russo, 1980.
- Japanese Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus niphonius (Cuvier, 1832).
- Kanadi kingfish, Scomberomorus plurilineatus Fourmanoir, 1966.
- Queensland school mackerel, Scomberomorus queenslandicus Munro, 1943.
- Cero mackerel, Scomberomorus regalis (Bloch, 1793).
- Broadbarred king mackerel, Scomberomorus semifasciatus (Macleay, 1883).
- Pacific sierra, Scomberomorus sierra Jordan & Starks, 1895.
- Chinese seerfish, Scomberomorus sinensis (Lacépède, 1800).
- West African Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus tritor (Cuvier, 1832).
- Genus Thunnus
- Albacore, Thunnus alalunga (Bonnaterre, 1788).
- Yellowfin tuna, Thunnus albacares (Bonnaterre, 1788).
- Blackfin tuna, Thunnus atlanticus (Lesson, 1831).
- Southern bluefin tuna, Thunnus maccoyii (Castelnau, 1872).
- Bigeye tuna, Thunnus obesus (Lowe, 1839).
- Pacific bluefin tuna, Thunnus orientalis (Temminck & Schlegel, 1844).
- Northern bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus (Linnaeus, 1758).
- Longtail tuna, Thunnus tonggol (Bleeker, 1851).
Scombridae in Popular Culture
Upon winning the 2007 Scripps National Spelling Bee
, champion Evan M. O'Dorney appeared on CNN with Kiran Chetry
. Chetry challenged the boy to spell the word "Scombridae," and O'Dorney failed in his attempt, citing a supposed mispronunciation as cause of his failure. Since then, the video has surfaced online, becoming something of an internet fad
and introducing the word Scombridae into mainstream vernacular